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1. Augmented Feedback. Chapter 15. 1. Feedback types. After performance… Sensory feedback (Task-intrinsic) Visual Proprioceptive Auditory Tactile Augmented feedback (Task-extrinsic) Knowledge of results (KR) : information about the outcome

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Augmented feedback


Augmented Feedback

Chapter 15

Feedback types


Feedback types

  • After performance…

    • Sensory feedback (Task-intrinsic)

      • Visual

      • Proprioceptive

      • Auditory

      • Tactile

    • Augmented feedback (Task-extrinsic)

      • Knowledge of results (KR): information about the outcome

      • Knowledge of performance (KP): information about the movement

Relative importance of feedback


Relative importance of feedback

  • Sometimes it’s essential for learning

    • Critical feedback needed for learning is not “available” or not interpretable for whatever reason

      • Unseen target

      • Disease/disability - loss of sensation

      • Task-intrinsic feedback is there, but can’t be understood (timing)

Relative importance of feedback1


Relative importance of feedback

  • Sometimes it may not be needed

    • Sensory feedback available, understood, and usable

    • Duplicating information that is already available

      • E.g. Saying “you hit it” when the person can clearly see they did (not only redundant, but annoying)

Relative importance of feedback2


Relative importance of feedback

  • Sometimes it may enhance learning

    • They can learn without it, but it speeds up learning

      • Complex skills requiring new patterns of multi-limb coordination

      • Aids the search through the “perceptual-motor workspace” (directs attention, aids in cue usage and so on)

        • E.g. golf shots, most sports skills

        • We’ll discuss this more towards the end of this slide set

Relative importance of feedback3


Relative importance of feedback

  • It may even make things worse

    • Feedback after every trial (guidance hypothesis, see later)

    • Concurrent feedback (but again see later)

      • In both cases, the idea is that there’s an inappropriate amount of attention paid to the augmented feedback

Kr kp the lab the real world


KR & KP – the lab & the “real world”

  • Teachers & coaches use KP almost exclusively

  • Motor learning research has been founded mostly on KR

    • Problem (generalization)?

    • Maybe – needs to be borne in mind for the next few slides

The small simple paradigm


The “small & simple” paradigm

  • Principle 1: Feedback must be prescriptive for folk to learn from it, so we need to study it in such situations

  • Principle 2: the task must be simple enough that folk can learn it in the time available, so that we can say something about learning

    • The “small and simple” paradigm met both these objectives by:

      • Using simple tasks that only required a small amount of practice to learn

      • Using tasks where feedback was essential to learning (so feedback was prescriptive), and examining how different doses of feedback affected learning

The small simple paradigm1


The “small & simple” paradigm

  • Feedback is prescriptive: provides guidance towards correct performance

The small simple paradigm2



The “small & simple” paradigm

  • The guidance hypothesis…why does this happen?