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Rome. Although the Hellenistic Age was coming to an end, as the Romans conquered much of the Mediterranean, the influence of the Greeks lived on in Roman culture. Roman Republic: The Land. Alps to the north Adriatic Sea to the East Mediterranean Sea to the West and South

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Rome

Although the Hellenistic Age was coming to an end, as the Romans conquered much of the Mediterranean, the influence of the Greeks lived on in Roman culture.

roman republic the land
Roman Republic: The Land
  • Alps to the north
  • Adriatic Sea to the East
  • Mediterranean Sea to the West and South
  • Ideal location to control trade from the eastern and western halves of the Med.
  • Long coastline made it open to attack
roman republic the beginning
Roman Republic: The beginning
  • In mid 700’s BC the Latins moved into west-cetral Italy
  • The settlers built villages along Tiber River that eventually became Rome
  • Rome was under the control of the Etruscan Kings
    • From the Etruscans came a written language
rome strategic location
Rome: Strategic Location
  • Built on 7 hills along the Tiber River
  • 15 miles inland
  • Protected from sea invasion
  • The center of trade routes on the Italian Peninsula
roman republic
Roman Republic
  • 509 BC wealthy landowners overthrow the Etruscans
  • Republic is formed - form of gov’t in which voters elect officials to run the state
  • Only adult males citizens were entitled to vote and to take office
  • 3 Important offices in gov’t - Senate, Magistrates, popular assemblies
senate
Senate
  • Most influential governing body in Rome
  • In time of trouble the Senate could name a dictator for a six month term
    • He had complete control of army and courts
magistrates elected officials
Magistrates: Elected Officials
  • Consuls - Two individuals elected for 1 yr terms (ran the gov’t)
    • Could veto - or refuse acts of other consul
    • Checks and Balances - This prevented any on part of gov’t from getting to powerful
  • Praetors - commanded armies and oversaw legal system
  • Censors - helped oversea human behavior
    • Ensured that people acted morally
assemblies
Assemblies
  • Several assemblies existed in Rome
  • Elected 10 Tribunes
  • Tribunes - had power over the Senate
    • If tribune believed actions were not in public interest, they could refuse to approve them.
social statuses
Social Statuses
  • Two classes in Roman Society
  • Patricians - powerful landowners who were descendants of original Roman founders
    • Controlled the Gov’t Early on
  • Plebians - made up of majority of the population & were usually farmers or workers
    • Had few rights early on but over time won same rights as Patricians
  • 12 Tables - engravement of Roman Laws that was placed in the Forum
sec ii rome expands

Sec II: Rome Expands

Through warfare and alliances, the Romans greatly expanded their control.

rome vs carthage
Rome vs. Carthage
  • Rome controlled Italian Peninsula by the 3rd Century BC
  • Carthage controlled much of north africa, Sardinia, and Corsica
  • Both had their eyes on Sicily
1st punic war
1st Punic War
  • Began in 264 BC
  • Rome w/ powerful army vs. Carthage w/ powerful navy
  • Romans eventually successful after building large navy
  • Romans made Carthage give up Sicily and large sums of money.
2nd punic war
2nd Punic War
  • Carthage wanted revenge on the Romans
  • Led by Hannibal - one of the greatest generals of all time
    • Conquers Spain
    • Launches invasion of Italy overland
2nd punic war cont d
2nd Punic War cont’d
  • Hannibal marches army across Alps
  • Ravages Rome for almost 20 years
  • Romans suffer humiliating defeat at the Battle of Cannae
    • Two roman armies are annihilated
2nd punic war cont d1
2nd Punic War Cont’d
  • Rome finally turns the tables on Carthage
  • Roman General Scipio invades Spain and then Carthage
  • Hannibal called back to defend the Capital
  • Hannibal defeated by Scipio at Zama
    • The only battle hannibal didn’t outnumber Romans in calvary
peace treaty and the end of carthage
Peace Treaty and the end of Carthage
  • Carthage forced forced to pay money again and give up its colonies in Spain
  • Macedonia was also allied with Carthage and was crushed
    • The province came under Roman protection
  • Third Punic War
    • 149 BC Rome declares war
    • 146 BC the city is destroyed
roman expansion and problems
Roman Expansion and Problems
  • Rome was now master of the Mediterranean
  • New territories called provinces
    • Administered by greedy governors
    • Overtaxed the provinces
  • Romans had problems at home
    • Many soldiers found their farms destroyed when they returned home and did not have enough $ to start over
    • Many farmers lost land and moved to cities
    • Those who could not find money depended on gov’t for food
    • Equites - increased trade allowed new class of business owner to flourish
    • Gap b/w rich and poor grows
sec iii birth of the empire

Sec. III: Birth of the Empire

Bitter political power struggles w/in the Roman Republic led to the creation of the Empire

gracchus brothers
Gracchus Brothers
  • Brothers Tiberius and Gaius
  • Attempted Social reform
    • Food for farmer-soldiers returning home from war
  • Both were tribunes
  • Tiberius murdered by Senators in 133 BC
  • Gaius killed by riot in 122 BC
social wars
Social Wars
  • Rome’s relation with provincial allies was in a crisis
  • They had fought for Rome against Carthage and Macedon
  • Wanted to be able to hold office like Roman citizens
  • Civil war breaks out
    • It is called the Social War , from the Latin word socius, meaning “ally”
outcome and reforms
Outcome and Reforms
  • Rome wins but grants allies citizenship
  • Gaius Marius - Roman general reforms army makes it volunteers
  • These “private” armies weaken the republic
republic in chaos
Republic in Chaos
  • Armies now more loyal to General than to Senate or Country
  • Lucius Cornelius Sulla uses his “private army” to make himself dictator
  • He does restore power to Senate
    • But now an army commander can make the Senate do his bidding
rise of caesar
Rise of Caesar
  • Julius Caesar was a popular general during his time
  • He was a nephew of Marius and a powerful public speaker
  • Spent a great deal of money supporting the poor
  • His ambition was to rule Rome
1st triumvirate
1st Triumvirate
  • Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, and Licinius Crassus form political alliance = 1st Triumvirate
  • Caesar becomes consul
    • Knew he needed a loyal army
    • Gets special command of Gaul and conquers the region (modern France)
    • Crassus dies and Pompey (now consul) orders Caesar back to Rome w/out his army
  • Caesar crosses the Rubicon w/ his Army
caesar triumphant
Caesar Triumphant
  • Pompey flees Rome to Greece to raise an army against Caesar
  • Pompey defeated
  • Caesar marches on Egypt and put Cleopatra on the throne
    • Egypt now a Roman ally
  • Returns to Rome triumphant and popular
  • Senate with threat from Caesar’s army makes Caesar Dictator for life
fall of caesar
Fall of Caesar
  • Caesar reduces power of Senate
  • Senate fears Caesar’s power and ambition
  • On Ides of March - March 15 - Caesar’s friends Brutus and Cassius murder Caesar on the Senate floor