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India: Government and Political Challenges

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  1. India: Government and Political Challenges Chapter 9 Section 2

  2. IndianGovernment • Federal System: #1 • power divided between central gov’t and state gov’t • In India Federal gov’t more powerful than state gov’t

  3. IndianGovernment • World’s largest democracy • Constitution (1950): • individual rights and social services • Outlawed: Untouchability • Healthcare • Federal Union of States • 28 states and 7 territories • Parliamentary Democracy: #2 • Form of government in which power lies in the hands of the political party that wins the most seats in parliament • Prime Minister: leader of political party wins majority

  4. IndianGovernment • 3 Branches of Government #3 • Parliament Two houses: #3 • Council of State: members are chosen by the state legislatures: • Upper House – Rajya Sabha • House of the People: elected directly by the people – • Lower House – Lok Sabha • Council of Ministers – Cabinet – executive powers

  5. Emblem of India Dr. Manmohan SinghPrime Minister 2004 INC President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012

  6. Political Parties • Many political parties: federal and state level • To represent the interests of different caste, language, religious, or regional groups #4 • INC: dominated for years – party of independence #5 • BJP: Bharata Janata Party#5 • Stressed Hindu Traditions • Coalition of opposition to INC • Coalition: #6 • If no party wins a majority of seats in parliament • Government in which several parties join to rule - issues

  7. Dividing Forces #7 • Divisions: • Caste system • Cultural Diversity • Treatment of Sikhs and Separatism • Muslim-Hindu clashes • Modern nationality limited

  8. Government Weakens the Caste System #8 • Obstacle to Modernization • Outlawed Untouchability - Constitution • Discrimination illegal • Compensatory discrimination: quota system – to help Harijans/Dalit (p.207) • Set aside openings for Untouchables • Government, public jobs, education • Still not fully accepted - Why? • gap between law and tradition

  9. Unifying Forces #9 • Bonds: • Commitment to Democracy • Millions of Indians share a common faith • Hindu traditions create important ties for the majority of Indians • Strong leaders

  10. What force both divides and unifies the people of India? #10 • Religion

  11. India’s Persecution of the Sikhs Punjab Operation Blue Star June 1984 was an Indian military operation, ordered by Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India, under the pretext of removing Sikh separatists from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The activists, led by Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, were accused of amassing weapons in the Sikh temple.

  12. Indian Leaders

  13. NehruFamily

  14. Jawaharlal Nehru • First Prime minister of India (1947-1964) • Ally of Gandhi • Goal: to create a modern industrialized secular nation #11 • casteless • Secular: without official religion • socialism

  15. Non-Alignment Movement

  16. Indira Gandhi #11 • Nehru’s daughter. • Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984. • Continues Nehru’s policies. • Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion. • Assassinated in 1984 by Sikh assassin

  17. Rajiv Gandhi #11 • Indira’s son. • Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989. • Liberalization of the Economy • Also faced rebellion. • Assassinated in 1991 while campaigning • Show Assassination Video