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Water, pH and Biological Molecules What’s so special about water? It’s a great solvent. It hold’s tons of heat. It has high surface tension. Its less dense as a solid than a liquid.
Water as a Solvent Dissolving table salt (sodium chloride)
This means that ice forms an insulating blanket over water. Water Is Lighter as Solid than as a Liquid
Water Has High Surface Tension The attraction of one water molecule for another also accounts for ability to hold huge amounts of heat.
pH is a Big Deal pH is a measure of proton (hydrogen ion or H+) concentration . Low pH = lots of H+s, high pH = few H+s. In biology, keeping H+ levels within a narrow range is critically important.
An acid produces H+ A base absorbs H+ Acids and Bases
Carbon’s Cool Carbon is the central atom of life. Because carbon contains 4 electrons in its outer shell, it can pair in many ways with many different atoms in an “attempt” to fill its outer shell.
glucose amino acids fat Carbon is the Central Atom of Life.
In Biology, Shape Matters Its not just chemical formula, it’s the shape of the molecule that lets it do its “job”. Never forget the axiom – structure dictates function. Some biological molecules.
Ah, That Smell! Once again, shape matters. It’s the good fit between odorant and receptor molecule that lets us detect aromas.
Four Major Classes of Biological Molecules Molecules of Life How do you build a cell? Start with water, add lots of small carbon-containing molecules and …….
Rules of the Game Macromolecules are built by linking a set of building blocks (monomers) together into long chains (a polymer). Each hexagon is this figure is a monomeric building block linked together to form a polymer.
Macromolecules Are Built By Linking a Set Of Building Blocks (Monomers) Together Into Long Chains (A Polymer).
Glucose: A Simple Carbohydrate Used For Energy Production and as a Building Block For Complex Carbohydrates
Linking Simple Sugars – the First Step to a Polymer and the Last Step to Some Familiar Compounds
Some Familiar and Important Complex Carbohydrates Note the way complex macromolecule are built by linking simple repeating units.
Sterol Phospholipid Fat Lipids are Hydrophobic Molecules That Exist In Three Primary Forms
Space-filling model of a fat A fatty acid Fats Are Made By Linking Fatty Acid Chains to Glycerol, a Three Carbon Molecule
Where are the double bonds? The Degree Of Saturation In A Fat Affects Its Physical And Nutritional Properties
saturated monounsaturated Where are the double bonds? polyunsaturated The Degree Of Saturation In A Fat Affects Its Physical And Nutritional Properties
Note the four ring structure common to all sterols. Sterols Are Part of Cellular Membranes and Act as Hormones
Sterols As Hormones Estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, and corticosteriods (cortisol) are all steroid hormones.
A heavily muscled Linford Christie who was disqualified from international competition after testing positive for a banned steroid. Sterols As Hormones “Designer steroids” are major sporting news where they have been used illegally in track and field, baseball, football and countless other sports.
Phospholipids are Building Blocks of Cellular Membranes The hydrophilic head group and hydrophobic tails are the keys to phospholipid function.
Hydrophilic Head Group And Hydrophobic Tails Are The Keys To Phospholipid Function Phospholipids have a Jekyll and Hyde personality.
Protein Proteins are THE key elements of life. Forget DNA, proteins rule. Remember the principle - structure determines function. Since proteins are the key players of the cell, it follows that protein structure determines cell function.
Peptide bonds Amino Acids, Peptide Bonds, Polypeptides, Protein Proteins are linear chains of 20 different building blocks called amino acids. Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds – a form of covalent bond.
Proteins are Folded Structures Whose Shape (and therefore function) Depends on Amino Acid Sequence
Nucleic Acids There are two kinds of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Both are involved in the storage and flow of information from gene to gene product. DNA
ATP, the cell’s primary energy currency. Nucleotides are Important in Their Own Right Nucleotides fuel the cell and coordinate its metabolism.