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4-hour Disaster Orientation. Vincent J. Giblin, General President. Phone: (304) 253-8674 Fax: (304) 253-7758 E-mail: 1293 Airport Road Beaver, WV 25813.

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4-hour Disaster Orientation

Vincent J. Giblin, General President

Phone: (304) 253-8674

Fax: (304) 253-7758


1293 Airport Road

Beaver, WV 25813


This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

This training program is based on recommendations from the CDC, NIOSH, OSHA, and the U.S. Army

You can find a link to their fact sheets and other important information at the National Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health Training at:

Hurricane Katrina Worker Health and Safety Plan

  • Describe possible safety hazards you may encounter
  • Explain how to protect yourself from these safety hazards
  • List sources of safety information
  • OSHA 300 Log
  • Five working days
  • Provide to OSHA on a weekly basis
  • Days away from work/restricted time (DART)
  • Contact OSHA
    • Fatality / Catastrophe (FAT / CAT)
    • HAZMAT spill in excess of reportable quantity (RQ)
worker rights responsibilities
Worker Rights & Responsibilities
  • Employers
    • Comply with General Duty Clause
      • “… provide a safe and healthful workplace for workers”
  • Employee
    • May refuse to perform task(s) that create imminent danger
    • Have right to complain about unsafe or unhealthful working conditions
    • File complaints without being subject to discrimination
worker rights responsibilities1
Worker Rights & Responsibilities


  • Comply with Employer’s Health and Safety Plan (HASP)
    • Use PPE
    • Obtain vaccinations
    • Reporting requirements using the proper chain of command
  • Maintain constant awareness of your surroundings
job hazard analysis jhas
Job Hazard Analysis (JHAs)


  • Develop JHAs for all tasks
  • Update as needed
  • Enforce adherence to
  • Maintain permit(s) with JHAs and make available
  • JHA development criteria
    • Description of task or job
    • The hazards involved (actual or potential)
    • Controls for removing hazards and protecting workers
hazard control
Hazard Control

Hierarchy of Controls:

  • Elimination or Substitution
  • Engineering Controls
  • Work-practice or Administrative Controls
  • PPE

JHAs and HASP should identify PPE requirements:

  • Respiratory Control
    • Must be NIOSH approved
    • Must adhere to 1910.134
  • Hearing Protection Program
    • Required when employee exposure ≥ 85 dBA
    • Must adhere to 1910.95 and 1926.52
  • Head Protection
    • Consult JHA and HASP
    • Must adhere to 1910.135 and 1926.100
example of ppe hazard assessment
Example of PPE Hazard Assessment


Facility: Saw Mill USA

Department: Saw Mill

Task Hazard PPE Selected

MAXI MILL Wood chips, debris, 94.5 dBA , lumber Safety glasses, hard hats, hearing

Protection, gloves

BAND SAW MILL Wood chips, debris, 93.5 dBA, lumber Safety glasses, hard hats, hearing

Protection, gloves

GANG SAW Wood chips, debris, 94.5 dBA , lumber Safety glasses, hard hats, hearing

Protection, gloves

EDGER Wood chips, debris, 96.2 dBA , lumber Safety glasses, hard hats, hearing

Protection, gloves

Certification of Assessment:

Name: Tracy. C. Orrin

Title: Environmental Health & Safety Manager


Date: 2005

ppe cont d
PPE (cont'd)
  • JHAs and HASP should identify PPE requirements
  • Eye & Face Protection
    • Must conform to ANSI Z87.1 and OSHA standards
  • High Visibility Garments
  • Foot Protection
    • Steel toe and shank based on JHA and HASP
    • 1910.136 Foot Protection
  • Personal Flotation Devices (PFDs)
    • 1926.106
  • General training for Disaster Site Worker
  • Site-specific
    • An overview of conditions specific to the locales where the employee will be deployed
  • Task specific
    • HAZCOM, PPE, use of tools, trip, slip and fall hazards
training cont d
Training (cont'd)
  • Pre-deployment & pre-job briefings
    • Conduct on a daily basis by workers’ immediate supervisor
  • Employers shall:
    • Maintain employee training records
      • Date
      • Name of trainer and trained employees
      • Safety topic / curriculum
    • Provide “competent / qualified “ persons to conduct training
training cont d1
Training (cont'd)
  • General training for DSW*
    • Incident Command (NIMS-ICS)
    • HAZCOM (1910.1200)
    • HAZWOPER (1910.120)
    • Confined Space (1910.146)
    • Traumatic Incident Stress Awareness
    • Medical Services (as part of HASP 1910.120)
      • Heat and Psychological Stress
      • Animal & plant hazards
      • Sanitation (1910.142)

* In Accordance With (IAW) Katrina HASP

training cont d2
Training (cont'd)

General training for DSW*

  • Heavy Construction Equipment (1926.600 thru. 605, 1926.251)
  • Fall Protection (1926.500 Subpart M)
  • Demolition (1926 Subpart T)
  • Material Handling (1910.178 and 1926.250)
  • Electrical Safety (NFPA, NEC, and 1910.332)
  • Fire Safety (1926.24,.150 and.151, 1910.39, .157)
  • Hand and Power Tools (1910.242, 1926.300-.305)
  • Illumination (1926 sub-part C)

* IAW Katrina HASP

incident command
Incident Command
  • Unity of Command
  • Span of Control
  • Common terminology & plain language
  • Personnel accountability
  • Management by objectives

* IAW Katrina HASP

incident command staff system
Incident Command Staff System

Safety Officer



Public Information Officer

Liaison Officer

  • OSHA 1910.1200
  • Right-to-Know
  • MSDS
  • Written Hazard Communication Program

Potential Hazardous Materials

* IAW Katrina HASP

  • OSHA 1910.120 /1926.65
  • Hazardous Waste Operations
  • 40-hour, 24-hour and 8-hour refresher
  • HASP
    • PPE
    • Respirators
    • Medical Surveillance
    • Monitoring

* IAW Katrina HASP


Petroleum Sheen on Water

Household Hazardous Materials

Toxic sludge ?

confined space definition
Confined Space Definition

Confined Space:

  • Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
  • Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry.); and
  • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy

Permit-required confined space has one or more characteristics:

  • Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
  • Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;
  • Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or
  • Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
confined space
Confined Space
  • OSHA 1910.146
  • HASP and JHAs should address
  • Training
    • Space evaluation
    • Acceptable entry conditions
    • Entrants
    • Attendants
    • Supervisors
  • Monitoring
  • Emergency Services

* IAW Katrina HASP

confined spaces
Confined Spaces

The following must be done before you enter a confined space. Your supervisor must:

  • Ventilate and monitor for hazardous conditions
  • Lock out or tag out all power equipment in the space
  • Issue appropriate PPE, possibly including self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
  • Establish barriers to external traffic such as vehicles and pedestrians
  • Provide ladders or similar equipment for safe entry and exit in the space
  • Provide good communications equipment and alarm systems
  • Have rescue equipment nearby
traumatic incident stress awareness
Psychological First Aid

Maintain normal eating & sleeping habits

Exercise, take breaks when possible

Make counseling available

Alcohol & Drug Abuse

Agencies & Contractors shall establish policies in accordance with Department of Transportation

Work-rest regimen, fatigue

Creates unsafe conditions

Rotation of shifts and personnel

Heat Stress

Be familiar with signs and symptoms

Have regular rest periods

Hydrate your body

Traumatic Incident Stress Awareness
animal plant hazards
Animal & Plant Hazards
  • Domestic animals have been displaced
  • Avoid working in standing water
  • Use caution when reaching into voids
  • Use insect repellent containing DEET
  • When possible wear long pants and shirts
southern house mosquito
Southern House Mosquito
  • Egg Laying: Females lay single raft of 140-340 eggs on heavily polluted small water collection after each blood meal. Eggs hatch in 1-2 days
  • Egg to Adult: 8-12 days after laying
  • Breeding place: all types of large man-made containers and collections of ground water, storm sewer catch basin, ground pools, ditches, run off from sewage plants, small artificial containers, cesspits, drains, septic tanks, unused wells, storm water canals
  • Travel: up to 3,600 feet /night
  • Life span: 2 weeks
  • Biting activity: usually attack humans towards the middle of the night indoors and outdoors; indoor biting
  • Preferred food: more attracted to birds (poultry) > humans
  • Lyme Disease
    • transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks
    • fever, headache, fatigue, and characteristic skin rash
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness
  • Southern Tick-Associated Illness
    • 1% to 3% of these ticks are infected
  • Tick-borne Relapsing Fever

Water Moccasin / Cotton Mouth

If bitten:

  • Do get medical help as soon as possible
  • Do squeeze as much venom out as possible
  • Do keep the stricken limb below the heart
  • Do TRY to remain calm
  • Do NOT cut the wound
  • Do NOT use ice
  • Do NOT take alcohol orally
  • Do NOT use a tourniquet
  • If suspect Coral snake, pull the snake off immediately
  • Be aware of snakes that may be:
    • swimming in the water to get to higher ground
    • hiding under debris or other objects

Copper head

rodent control
Rodent Control
  • Store grains and animal feed in rodent-proof containers.
  • Woodpiles and stacks of lumber, or other materials to be saved for later use should be stored at least 12 inches above the ground and as far away from the home as possible.
  • Glue traps and live traps are not recommended. Rodents caught in live traps will likely reenter the dwelling. Glue traps can scare mice that are caught live and cause them to urinate. This may increase your risk of being exposed to diseases.
  • Spray dead rodents, rodent urine or droppings with a disinfectant or a 1:10 chlorine solution (1 part bleach to 10 parts water) until thoroughly soaked. Use a paper towel to pick up the urine and the droppings and discard it outdoors in a sealed container.
dog bites rabies
Dog Bites/Rabies
  • Man and woman's best friend bites more than 4.7 million people a year.
  • Each year, 800,000 Americans seek medical attention for dog bites; half of these are children.
  • Of those injured, 386,000 require treatment in an emergency department and about a dozen die.
  • Do not approach an unfamiliar dog.
  • The most common mode of rabies virus transmission is through the bite and virus-containing saliva of an infected host.


fire ants
Fire Ants
  • A minority are hypersensitive to the venom and can react quite strongly
    • chest pains, nausea, dizziness, shock or, in rare cases, lapsing into coma
  • Can and do sting repeatedly
  • Rarely stung only once
  • Pustules are easily infected
  • May leave permanent scars
  • 1910.141
  • 1926.27 and 1926.51 HASP and JHAs should address these concerns

Stagnate or Running water

* IAW Katrina HASP

equipment blind spot
Equipment Blind Spot

Eye level 10 ft - 0 in above

ground level


14’ 8”

16’ 2”

14’ 3”

Operator sight distances

from eye level to ground

14’ 10”

21’ 11”


Front End Loader

equipment blind spot1
Equipment Blind Spot

Eye level 5 ft - 5 in above

ground level

11’ 7”

11’ 5”

21’ 8”

4’ 10”

6’ 1”

Operator sight distances

from eye level to ground

3’ 1”



Skid Steer

6’ 3”

work zone traffic safety
Work Zone Traffic Safety
  • Workers who drive in the course of their duties shall possess a valid license appropriate for the vehicles they are driving
  • Employers shall ensure compliance with state laws governing use of seat belts
  • Anticipate the unexpected
    • Missing and/or unserviceable traffic lights
    • Missing road signs
    • Defensive driving
washouts and sink holes
Washouts and Sink Holes

Washouts or Erosions

Sink Holes

fall protection
Fall Protection
  • Employees shall be protected from falls greater than 6’
    • 1926 Subpart M
  • Scaffold safety addressed in 1926 Subpart L
  • Ladder use shall conform to 1926 Subpart X
  • Blue Tarping should be addressed in HASP and JHAs

* IAW Katrina HASP


Unstable Structures & Sites


  • Demolition activities shall conform to 1926 Subpart T
  • Employees shall not enter seriously damaged buildings or structures
  • All utilities shall be disconnected
collapse and flood surge
Collapse and Flood Surge

Flood Surge Damage

Cantilever Collapse

Flood Surge Damage

Open sided floors

material handling
Material Handling
  • Powered Industrial Trucks shall conform to 1910.178
  • Material storage shall conform to 1926.250(b)
  • JHAs and HASP should incorporate these topics

* IAW Katrina HASP

electrical safety
Electrical Safety
  • Conform to appropriate OSHA, NFPA and NEC standards
  • Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) on all 15A, 20A & 30A temporary wiring circuits

Broken Utilities

* IAW Katrina HASP

utilities and associated hazards
Utilities and Associated Hazards
  • Power
    • Electrocution
    • Sparking
  • Natural Gas
    • Explosive hazard
    • Carbon Monoxide/Asphyxiation
  • Water
    • Flooding of confined spaces
    • Electrical conductor
fire safety
Fire Safety
  • Enough OXYGEN to sustain combustion
  • Enough HEAT to reach ignition temperature
  • Some FUEL or combustible material
  • Together, they produce the CHEMICAL REACTION that is fire

* IAW Katrina HASP

extinguishing media
Extinguishing Media

Class A: Wood, paper

Class B: Flammable liquids

Class C: Electrical

Class D: Metals

fire safety1
Fire Safety
  • Provide fire extinguishers at work sites and/or on work vehicles
  • Incorporate fire extinguishers into JHAs
  • Fire Watch & Hot Work Permitting
  • Safe storage of combustible and flammable liquids
hand power tools
Hand & Power Tools
  • 1910.242 (a) General requirements. Each employer shall be responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees, including tools and equipment which may be furnished by employees.

* IAW Katrina HASP

regulations covering hand and power tools
Regulations Covering Hand and Power Tools

For Construction Industry

  • 1926 Subpart I, - Tools – Hand and Power
  • 1926.300, General Requirements
  • 1926.301, Hand Tools.
  • 1926.303, Abrasive Wheels and Tools.
  • 1926.304, Woodworking Tools.
  • 1926.305, Jacks– Lever and Ratchet, Screw and Hydraulic
  • 1926.306, Air Receivers
  • 1926.307, Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus
construction industry
Construction Industry
  • 1926.301(a)
    • Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools.
  • 1926.301(b)
    • Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs.
  • 1926.301(c)
    • Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads.
  • 1926.301(d)
    • The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the tool.
hand tool hazards
Hand Tool Hazards


Do not use:

  • Wrenches when jaws are sprung
  • Impact tools (chisels and wedges) when heads have mushroomed
  • Tools with loose, cracked or splintered handles
  • A screwdriver as a chisel
  • Tools with taped handles – they may be hiding cracks
types of power tools
Types of Power Tools
  • Electric
  • Pneumatic (air)
  • Liquid fuel
  • Hydraulic
  • Powder-actuated
the five basic rules for power tools
The Five Basic Rules for Power Tools
  • Keep all tools regularly maintained
  • Use the right tool for the job
  • Examine each tool for damage before use
  • Operate tools in accordance with the manufacturer
  • Provide and use the proper personal protective equipment
chain saw statistics
More than 40,000 people are injured by chain saws each year.

The two most common places for injuries are the front left thigh and the back of the left hand.

Chain Saw Statistics
parts of a chain saw
Parts of a Chain Saw

Required Parts:

  • Chain catcher
  • Front hand guard
  • Throttle trigger interlock
look for these safety features
Low kickback saw chain

Hand guard

Safety tip

Chain brake

Vibration reduction system

Spark arrestor on gasoline models

Trigger or throttle lockout

Chain catcher

Bumper spikes

Look for these safety features
how to carry a chain saw
How to Carry a Chain Saw
  • The engine should be shut off
  • The chain brake should be engaged
  • The scabbard is covering the guide bar to prevent cuts
  • The chain saw is carried backward
  • The muffler is carried away from the body to prevent burns
personal equipment checklist
Personal Equipment Checklist
  • Hard hat
  • Eye/Face protection
  • Hearing protection
  • Foot protection
  • Snake Bite/Bee Sting kits as appropriate
  • Tools (wedges, axes, etc.)
  • Hand protection if handling wire rope
  • Leg protection
  • First Aid Kit
what is kickback
What is Kickback?
  • Kickback is caused by a spinning chain coming in contact with resistance
  • It causes the chain saw to “kick back” toward your face
  • It is very common and can cause serious injury
kickback prevention
Kickback Prevention
  • NEVER cut with the tip of the chain saw!
  • Lock your front elbow
  • Be careful not to cut through nails or knots in the wood
  • Stand to the side
  • Use a low kickback chain
  • Use a chain brake
osha chain saw use requirements
OSHA Chain Saw Use Requirements

Before starting the saw:

  • Check controls, chain tension, and all bolts and handles to ensure they are functioning properly and adjusted according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  • Fuel the saw at least 10 feet from sources of ignition.
  • Start the saw at least 10 feet from fueling area, with chain brake engaged, and with the chainsaw on the ground or otherwise firmly supported.
  • Fuel container requirements:
    • Must be metal or plastic
    • Must not exceed a 3 gallon capacity
    • Must be approved by the Underwriters Laboratory, Factory Mutual (FM) or the Department of Transportation (DOT).
osha chain saw use requirements1
OSHA Chain Saw Use Requirements

While operating the saw:

  • Keep hands on the handles, and maintain secure footing while operating the chainsaw.
  • Clear the area of obstacles that might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path.
  • Do not cut directly overhead.
  • Shut off or throttle released prior to retreating.
  • Shut off or the chain brake engaged whenever the saw is carried more than 50 feet, or on hazardous terrain.
chain saw checklist 29 cfr 1910 266 e 1 ii
Chain Saw Checklist29 CFR 1910.266(e)(1)(ii)
  • Chain brake
  • Throttle interlock
  • Chain catcher
  • Chain tension
  • Muffler
  • Chain saw kickback
  • Chain sharpness, cutter shape, depth usage setting, lubrication
  • Handles and guards - On Tight
  • No chain movement when engine is idling
required work practices 29 cfr 1910 266 e 2
Required Work Practices29 CFR 1910.266(e)(2)

ii - Continuous Pressure Throttle

iii - Operated and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions

iv - Fueled 20 feet from sources of ignition [Standard says "10"]

v - Started 10 feet from fueling area

vi - Starting Methods

vii - Chain brake engaged when starting

viii - Thumb and finger position on handles

ix - Footing/body position

x- Clear area prior to felling

xi - No cutting above head

xii - Carrying the saw

xiii - Retreating with the saw

xiv - Moving with a running chain saw

preventing injuries
Preventing Injuries
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) MUST be worn at all times.
  • This can greatly reduce injuries and prevent death from chain saw injuries.
  • Keep both hands on the chain saw handles.
  • 1926.26 Subpart C
  • 1910.178(h)
  • General Duty Clause

* IAW Katrina HASP

safety hazards summary
Safety Hazards Summary
  • Record keeping
  • Employee and Employer responsibilities
  • Job hazard Analysis and Health and Safety Plans
  • Required Training according to HASP
This training program is based on recommendations from the CDC, NIOSH, OSHA, and the U.S. Army

You can find a link to their fact sheets and other important information at the National Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health Training at:

Hurricane Katrina Worker Health and Safety Plan

  • Describe possible health hazards you may encounter
  • Explain how to protect yourself from these health hazards
  • List the symptoms that indicate you may be suffering traumatic psychological stress
  • Explain how to get medical or psychological help, if you need it
  • List sources of health information
southeastern united states
Southeastern United States
  • Hurricane Katrina caused extensive flooding and widespread devastation
  • Health risks rise with
    • Lack of waste disposal
    • Contaminated food
    • Contaminated water
    • Inadequate water for hygiene
    • Increased exposure to the heat
louisiana disease trends 1999 data
Louisiana Disease Trends(1999 data)
  • Hepatitis A rate – 4.9 per 100,000
    • half the national rate
  • Hepatitis C rate – 7.0 per 100,000
    • six times higher than the national rate
  • Louisiana - 10th highest number of AIDS cases in the nation
  • Two confirmed human cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), 97 in horses
  • 15 cases of Lyme Disease



Immunization Recommendationsfollowing Hurricane KatrinaDepartment of Health and Human ServicesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionOctober 12, 2005

  • Tetanus and diphtheria
    • primary series
    • Td booster within 10 years
  • Hepatitis B vaccine series
    • persons who will performing direct patient care or expected to have contact with bodily fluids
water borne hazards
Water-borne Hazards
  • Avoid standing water if possible
  • Protect yourself with the proper PPE if you have to enter the water
  • Treat cuts and scrapes immediately after contact with standing water
  • Follow public announcement for drinking, cooking, or bathing
  • Wash hands often – If soap and water are not available use alcohol based products



food borne disease hazard
Food-borne Disease Hazard
  • Identify and throw away food that:
    • May not be safe to eat.
    • May have come in contact with flood or storm water.
    • Has an unusual odor, color, or texture.
    • Perishable foods (including meat, poultry, fish, eggs and leftovers) that have been above 40 degrees Fahrenheit (F) for 2 hours or more.
    • Food containers with screw-caps, snap-lids, crimped caps (soda pop bottles), twist caps, flip tops, snap-open, and home canned foods should be discarded if they have come into contact with floodwater because they cannot be disinfected.
  • Store food safely:
    • While the power is out, keep the refrigerator and freezer doors closed as much as possible.
    • Add block ice or dry ice to your refrigerator if the electricity is expected to be off longer than 4 hours. Wear heavy gloves when handling ice.
blood borne disease hazard
Blood-borne Disease Hazard

Personnel exposed to blood and body fluids must use universal precautions

  • Use gloves when handling bodies or body fluids and replace if punctured or torn
  • Use eye protection, gowns, and masks when large quantities or splashes of blood are anticipated
  • Wash hands frequently
  • Transport human remains in closed, leak-proof, labeled containers
  • Use body bags to reduce the risk of contamination
universal precautions
Universal Precautions
  • Prevention strategy in which all blood, potentially infectious materials, and respiratory secretions are treated as if they are, in fact, infectious, regardless of the perceived status of the source individual.
  • In other words:

treat all blood and body fluids as infected with blood-borne pathogens

heat stress cramps exhaustion stroke
Heat Stress Cramps, Exhaustion, Stroke
  • Know the signs of heat-related illnesses
  • Monitor yourself and coworkers
  • Use buddy-system
  • Work/Rest cycles and rest regularly
  • Drink lots of water, 1 cup every 15 minutes
  • Wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothes
  • Avoid alcohol, caffeinated drinks, or heavy meals
  • Use cooling fans/air-conditioning
  • Get medical help for symptoms such as altered vital signs, confusion, profuse sweating, excessive fatigue
  • Take shelter in shaded areas and, for firemen, unbutton and remove bunker gear


  • Use hearing protection whenever noisy equipment is used
  • Examples: saws, earth-moving equipment, life- saving equipment (Hurst tools)
  • This will prevent temporary hearing loss
foot care
Foot Care

Protect your feet:

  • Keep feet clean and dry
  • Change socks at least every 8 hours or whenever wet and apply foot powder
  • Bring extra boots to field - alternate boots from day to day to allow boots to dry
  • Seek medical care at the first sign of any problems
chemicals released by katrina
Chlorine tank found in downtown Gulfport

78,000 barrels of oil released at two spills

22,000 facilities have underground fuel tanks



Motor oil


Liquid oxygen

Medical waste


Chemicals Released by Katrina


chemical exposure symptoms
Chemical Exposure Symptoms
  • Acute effects
    • Irritation of eyes, nose, throat, upper respiratory tract, and skin
    • Flu like symptoms
    • CNS depression
    • Fatigue
    • Loss of coordination
    • Memory difficulties
    • Sleeplessness
    • Mental confusion
  • Chronic effects
    • Depend on the extent and the duration of exposure
respiratory exposure issues
Respiratory Exposure Issues
  • Dusts
  • Fuels
  • Sewage
  • Mold spores (fungi)
  • Household chemicals
  • Hazardous wastes
  • Protect yourself from breathing dust and smoke, it can contain toxic material
  • If in doubt about respirators, see your supervisor
  • An N-95 respirator is acceptable for most activities, including silica and portland cement dust
  • If asbestos is present, use a half-mask elastomeric respirator with N-100, R-100, or P-100 series filters
  • If airborne contaminants are causing eye irritation, full-face respirators with P-100 OV/AG combination cartridges should be used
  • Make sure you are fit-tested for a respirator, it must fit properly to protect you
  • Surgical masks should not be used because they do not provide adequate protection
carbon monoxide co
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Gasoline, diesel, or propane powered combustion sources
    • Generators
    • Heavy machinery
    • Water pump
    • Vehicle
  • General Recommendations and Warnings
    • Do not use in confined spaces or poorly ventilated areas
    • Do not work in areas close to engine exhaust
    • CO poisoning can occur outdoors if engines generate high concentrations of CO and worker is in the area of the exhaust gases
    • Use CO warning sensors when working around combustion sources
    • Shut off engine immediately if symptoms of exposure appear
carbon monoxide exposure symptoms
Carbon Monoxide Exposure Symptoms
  • Acute effects
    • Headache
    • Dizziness
    • Drowsiness
    • Nausea progressing to vomiting
    • Loss of consciousness
    • Collapse
    • Coma
    • Death under prolonged or high exposure
  • Chronic effects
    • Depend on the extent and the duration of exposure
  • “When in doubt, throw it out!”
  • Articles that have visible mold should be thrown away
  • If the safety of food or beverage is questionable, throw it out
  • Only drink safe drinking water that has been bottled, boiled, or treated until there is confirmation that the community water supply is safe for consumption
mold exposure
Mold Exposure
  • Avoid breathing dust (fungal spores) generated by disturbing mold
  • Use an N-95 NIOSH-approved disposable respirator as a minimum
  • Wash thoroughly: hair, scalp, and nails
  • Exposure to mold can cause wheezing and severe nasal, eye, and skin irritation
  • Wear goggles that do not have ventilation holes to protect eyes
  • Wear long gloves
    • Natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, polyurethane, or PVC
    • Using a disinfectant, a biocide (chlorine bleach), or a strong cleaning solution

N-95 Respirator

exposure monitoring
Exposure Monitoring
  • Performed on a health risk basis by a qualified person*

*”By position of a recognized degree, certificate, professional standing, extensive knowledge, training, or experience.”

  • Types: personal, area, grab, direct reading
  • Contact information is needed
  • Consideration given to likely contaminates
  • Initial screening, short-term, or full-shift
  • Occupational limits differ from environmental
  • “If there is any doubt, perform sampling”
resistance to psychological stress
Resistance to Psychological Stress
  • Prepare yourself for what you will see and do
  • Remember the larger purpose of what you must do
    • You are showing care, giving hope, and preventing disease for the living
    • You are recovering the bodies for registrations and respectful burial
  • Limit exposure to the stimuli
  • Mask odors with disinfectants, deodorants, or air-fresheners
  • Have people who did NOT search the body examine any materials collected for identification of the body or intelligence
  • Remind yourself the body is not “the person,” just the remains
  • AVOID FOCUSING on any individual victim
traumatic stress
Traumatic Stress
  • Pace yourself and take frequent rest breaks
  • Be conscious of those around you - watch out for others
    • Responders who are exhausted, feeling stressed, or even temporarily distracted may place themselves and others at risk
  • Maintain a normal eating and sleeping schedule to the extent possible
  • Make sure that you drink plenty of fluids such as water and juices
  • Try to eat a variety of foods and increase your intake of complex carbohydrates
    • Breads and muffins made with whole grains
  • Whenever possible, take breaks away from the work area
  • Eat and drink in the cleanest area available


traumatic stress1
Traumatic Stress
  • Recognize and accept what you cannot change
    • Chain of command, organizational structure, waiting, equipment failures, etc.
  • Talk to people when YOU feel like it. You decide when you want to discuss your experience.
  • If your employer provides you with formal mental health support, use it!
  • Give yourself permission to feel rotten: You are in a difficult situation.
  • Recurring thoughts, dreams, or flashbacks are common
  • Communicate with your loved ones at home as frequently as possible
returning home stress
Returning Home Stress
  • Reach out - people really do care
  • Reconnect with family, spiritual, and community supports
  • Consider keeping a journal
  • Do not make any big life decisions
  • Make as many daily decisions as possible to give yourself a feeling of control over your life
  • Spend time with others or alone doing the things you enjoy to refresh and recharge yourself
  • Be aware that you may feel particularly fearful for your family
  • Remember that "getting back to normal" takes time
  • Gradually work back into your routine
returning home stress1
Returning Home Stress
  • Be aware that recovery is not a straight path
  • Appreciate a sense of humor in yourself and others
  • It is OK to laugh again
  • Your family will experience the disaster along with you
    • You need to support each other
    • This is a time for patience, understanding, and communication
  • Avoid overuse of drugs or alcohol
  • Get plenty of rest and normal exercise
  • Eat well balanced, regular meals
osha fact sheets english
Aerial Lifts

Asbestos Hazards

Black Widow Spider

Brown Recluse Spider

Cleanup Hazard

Cottonmouth Snakes

Downed Electrical Wires

Fire Ants

Flood Cleanup

General Decontamination

Hand Hygiene and Gloves

Handling Human Remains

Heat Stress

Hydrogen Sulfide

Lead Hazards



Portable Generator Safety

Preventing Falls

Search and Rescue

Tree Trimming Tips

West Nile Virus

Work Zone Traffic Safety

Working Outdoors

Working Safely with Electricity

OSHA Fact Sheets - English
osha quickcards english
Aerial Lifts

Carbon Monoxide

Confined Spaces

Chain Saws


Confined Space Permit

Construction PPE

Crane Safety

Electrical Safety

General Decontamination

Hand Hygiene and Gloves

Heat Stress

Hydrogen Sulfide

Lead in Construction


Portable Generator Safety

Portable Ladder Safety


Rodents, Snakes and Insects



Supported Scaffold

Tree Trimming Tips

West Nile Virus

Work Zone Traffic Safety

OSHA QuickCards - English
osha fact sheets spanish
OSHA Fact Sheets - Spanish
  • Chain Saws
  • Cleanup Hazard
  • Fungi
  • Preventing Falls
  • Tree Trimming Tips
  • Working Safely with Electricity
osha quickcards spanish
OSHA QuickCards - Spanish
  • Aerial Lifts
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Chippers
  • Construction PPE
  • Hand Hygiene and Gloves
  • Heat Stress
  • Silicosis
  • Sun
  • Supported Scaffold
health hazards summary
Health Hazards Summary
  • Water, food, blood hazards
  • Universal precautions
  • Heat stress
  • Noise
  • Chemical exposure
  • Respirators
  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Mold
  • Exposure monitoring
  • Traumatic Stress
"Preparation through education

is less costly than

learning through tragedy."



This presentation was adapted from:

  • NIOSH Guide called “Suggested Guidance for Supervisors at Disaster Rescue Sites.” More information is available at their site:
  • CDC web site entitled “Hurricanes, what you should know”
  • U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine PowerPoint:


This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.