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Public Education & American Culture. 1870s – first U.S. kindergarten programs: do you remember kindergarten? Expression through stories, games, songs (geography) http:// Creativity yields a head start to education Behavior is addressed and learned

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public education american culture
Public Education & American Culture

1870s – first U.S. kindergarten programs:

do you remember kindergarten?

  • Expression through stories, games, songs (geography)

  • Creativity yields a head start to education
  • Behavior is addressed and learned
  • Kindergartens = centers for learning & discipline
  • Obedience is trained
educating americans
Educating Americans
  • Before 1870 = less than ½ U.S. children attend school
  • As cities & industry grew, nation needed an educated workforce
    • State improved public schools
compulsory education
Compulsory Education
  • Compulsory Education Laws: Required children to attend school, usually through 6th grade.
  • English taught to young immigrants
  • Rights of citizens & Constitution was taught too
  • Afraid that public schools stressed Protestantism
  • They open their own parochial: church sponsored schools
school day
School Day
  • 8am-4pm
  • “Three R’s” – reading, ‘riting (…) & ‘rithmetic
    • Problem? 1/3 of these words start with “R”…school? Hmm….
  • Reading, religion, ethics, values
  • Discipline & obedience – sit upright, hands folded, corporal punishment ALLOWED! (Connection?)
higher learning
Higher Learning
  • After Civil War, public high schools were on the rise
  • Private colleges for men and women opened
  • Trade schools: “shop work” – electricians, carpenters
newspaper boom
Newspaper Boom
  • Directly linked to the growth of cities
  • Reports of major events of the day
  • Local gov’t, business, fashion, sports
  • Immigrants learn to read English from the daily paper
  • Why do YOU think youngsters would want to be interested in being paperboys or “newsies”

two newspaper giants
Two Newspaper Giants

Joseph Pulitzer (Hungarian immigrant)- 1st modern, mass-circulation paper

  • Bought “New York World”
  • Slashed prices & added comic strips
  • Pictures and “scare” headlines attract attention to scandal
two newspaper giants1
Two Newspaper Giants

William Randolph Hearst – challenges Pulitzer

  • Scandal, crime stories, gossip
  • Criticism – more scandal than news every day
yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism

Yellow journalism: news reporting, often biased on untrue, that relies on sensation stories and headlines

  • Newspapers competed for women readers
  • Fashion, social events, health, homemaking, family matters
  • Most were afraid to take bold positions that may anger some other readers (women’s rights)
new reading habits
New Reading habits
  • Growth of magazines to specific demographics:
    • “Ladies’ Home Journal” “Harper’s Monthly”
  • What are your favorite magazines? WHY???

Dime novels: low-priced paperback books offering

thrilling adventure stories

    • Horatio Alger (writes 100+) “rags to riches” stories
    • Offered the hope that even the poorest person could succeed in the U.S.
new american writers
New American Writers

Realists: writers who tried to show the harsh side of life as it was

  • Many had worked as newspaper reporters
  • Had seen poverty/ wanted to make people aware of the costs of urbanization & industrial growth
    • Paul Laurence Dunbar- 1st African American to make a living as a writer
    • “We Wear the Mask”
mark twain
Mark Twain
  • Most famous & popular writer of this time
  • “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”
  • Used local color
local color
Local color

Local color: speech and habits of a particular region

  • Southerners who lived & worked along Mississippi River
  • Many books banned as “bad influence” & “taboo”
painting everyday life
Painting Everyday Life

This generation of writers try to capture the

gritty side of modern life

  • Writing & drawing/ painting
    • Battle scenes
    • Depression
    • Racism
    • Human anatomy
    • Sports arenas
    • African American sharecroppers
now that we have an appreciation for literature poetry
Now That We Have an Appreciation for Literature & Poetry…

Create an “AABCCB” poem about what you’ve learned today about education. Can’t think of anything?... create one based on what you’ve learned about the meatpacking industry.

INCLUDE at least one picture or drawing

Have fun with this!!! Make it creative!

MINIMUM: two sets

Here’s an example of 1 set of an “aabccb” poem…..

Little Miss MuffetSat on atuffetEating her curds and whey.Along came a spiderAnd sat down beside herAnd frightened Miss Muffett away.