800-806 • Interpret Political Cartoons • Describe the issues involved in the “Second • Cold War” during the Reagan/Bush years.
Analyzing Political Cartoons: -Remember the components of cartoons: Date Location of publication Symbolism Background knowledge. - Analyze as many of cartoons as you can from this packet in your notebook (do not write on the packet).
The 1988 Presidential Election: • Vice-president George Bush defeated Democrat Michael Dukakis with 56% of the vote, winning 40/50 states. • Both candidates had a great deal of experience. • Dukakis looked weak: • Bush campaign director Lee Atwater attacked Governor Dukakis by: • Showing Dukakis favored strict gun control. • Reminding voters Dukakis vetoed a bill requiring recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance in schools. • Pointing out his delay of the Massachusetts Bay clean up. • Approving prisoner Willie Horton’s furlough = RAPE.
The 1988 Presidential Election: • Result? • Bush appeared to be “tough as nails” while the Democrats looked weak and ineffective on crime.
President George Bush: • Issues: • Need to increase the fight against illegal drugs. • By 1990, 50% of all federal inmates were in jail for drug offenses. • Reduced the level of government involvement in Americans lives: • Shifted focus of federal monies from highway construction to the building of public mass transit systems. • Focus on helping Americans with disabilities, which led to the 1990 American Disabilities Act.
President George Bush: • Issues: • This reduction in the level of government involvement also led to weak economic policies: • Increasing budget and trade deficits led the U.S. from being an international creditor nation to a debtor nation. • Had to raise taxes in 1990, however, he’d promised “No New Taxes” as a major campaign promise. • Race relations suffered: • Black motorist Rodney King was beaten after a car chase by Los Angeles Police officers on March 3, 1992. • A bystander videotaped the incident and sent it to the local news.
President George Bush: • Issues: • Race relations suffered: • In April, 1992, four officers were found not guilty for “unjustified use of force”. • In the days following the verdict, riots broke out on the streets leaving 58 people dead and millions of dollars in property damage. • The riots were far worse than the Watts Riots of 1965 and showed the frustration of racial and economic discrimination felt in minority communities. • Central American and Mexican immigrants accounted for one-third of the 12,000 arrests during the rioting.
President George Bush: • Issues: (not in text) • Some questioned Bush’s decision to choose Dan Quayle as his running mate (VP) • His youth and lack of experience concerned many. • Often seemed uncomfortable and ill at ease in the public. Dan Quayle Debate Dan Quayle Spelling Bee
800-806 Day 2 • Describe the issues involved in the “Second • Cold War” during the Reagan/Bush years.
Quick Review: • 1988 Presidential Election was a strong victory for • former Vice-President George Bush over Governor • Michael Dukakis • Issues: • Fight against illegal drugs • Decrease the level of federal government involve- • ment in local issues • Struggled with economic policy • Race relations suffered
Directions: 1. Review each section from today’s reading and choose the section you think had the most significant impact on the US and the world. (Make note of specific items to support your choice in your notebook). Confronting the USSR (802) Risky Business: Foreign Policy Adventures (803) Perestroika/Crisis in Eastern Europe (804) The First Persian Gulf War (805) Now, pair up with your neighbor and discuss and defend your choice. Move to one of the corners of the room and be prepared to defend your choice.
Which event/issue do you think was most significant for the US? Why? • Confronting USSR • Risky Business: Foreign Policy • Perestroika/Crisis • First Persian Gulf • War
Reagan/Bush Foreign Policy: • President Reagan’s View of the USSR: • Saw the Soviets as a great threat to the United States, what he referred to as an “Evil Empire”. • Soviets had pursued military expansion throughout the 1970s-80s and supported Marxist governments in Angola, Ethiopia, Nicaragua and Afghanistan. • Reagan challenged this, and as a result, cold war tensions rose once again during the 1980s.
Reagan/Bush Foreign Policy: • Central Europe • To counter improved Soviet weaponry, Reagan ordered cruise and midrange Pershing II Missiles located in Europe in 1983. • In 1981 the National Security Council Directive D-13 advised that a nuclear war would be winnable. • 1983 President Reagan unveiled his “Strategic Defense Initiative” (SDI or “Star Wars”) nuclear defense plan. Strategic Defense Initiative TV ad
Reagan/Bush Foreign Policy: • Lebanon • 1982-83 Reagan sent U.S. Marines to support Israel’s efforts to rid Palestinian terrorists in Beirut, Lebanon and to protect Lebanese independence. • This “presence mission” angered Arabs, and in 10/83 a car bomb attack killed 240 Marines there. • Grenada • 1983 U.S. troops invaded this Caribbean nation when Cuban soldiers (disguised as construction workers) began building an airfield that the U.S. feared would be a Cuban military base.
Reagan/Bush Foreign Policy: • Nicaragua • 1979 Communist rebel Sandinistas had overthrown the Somoza Government, U.S worried that gov’t would become communist. (…Another Cuba?) • 1983 CIA trained 10,000 Contra rebels “Freedom Fighters” from Somoza’s old army to raid/harass Sandinista bases. • 1985 – “Iran-Contra Affair” - When Congress rejected further support for the Contras, CIA Director Wm. Casey, and Lt.Col. Oliver North sold missiles to Iran in exchange for help releasing hostages in Lebanon, then gave the money to Contra rebels.
US $$$ Weapons Contras in Nicaragua Iran Iran-Contra Affair $$$ $$$
Reagan/Bush Foreign Policy: • Nicaragua • 1985 – “Iran-Contra Affair” • Became a scandal when: • Tried to operate in secret, not involving Congress • Attempting to “cover-up” the arms deal when it became public.
Reagan/Bush Foreign Policy: • Philippines • 1986 Secretary of State George Shultz arranged for U.S. diplomats to oust corrupt President Ferdinand Marcos and replace him with democratically elected Corizon Aquino. • Soviet Union • 1986 Michael Gorbachev became General Secretary of USSR began: • Glasnost – openness • Perestroika – restructuring • Reagan accepted this and signed the Intermediate Nuclear Force Treaty (INF)
Reagan/Bush Foreign Policy: • Soviet Union • 1991 an attempted coup by hardliners to overthrow Gorbachev failed due to help of Boris Yeltsin. • 12/91 Gorbachev resigned, the 15 Soviet Republics declared independence and the U.S.S.R. ceased to exist!
Reagan/Bush Foreign Policy: • Eastern Europe • 1989 Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, East Germany rejected Communism and elected democratic governments. • 1990 East and West Germany reunited when the Berlin Wall came down and joined N.A.T.O. • Iraq • 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait for their oil reserves, under U.N. Security Council Resolution #678 the U.S. was authorized to liberate Kuwait in “Operation Desert Storm” 2/1991.