LESSON 1 Issues that Divided the Nation USI.9a
SOL OBJECTIVE USI.9a: Describe the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues that divided the nation.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION(S): What causes a society to become so fragmented to the point where civil war is seen as the only solution?
What do I need to know? Cultural, economic, and political differences may divide nations and lead to civil war.
HOOK Have students brainstorm what they already know about the differences between the North and South. Have them predict which side believed in each issue that ultimately divided the nation
Issues the divided the nation 1. SLAVERY • The issues related to slavery increasingly divided the nation and led to the Civil War.
Issues that divided the nation 2. Cultural • North: • Urban society in which people held jobs. • People believed it was morally wrong to have slaves.
South • Agricultural society in which people lived in small villages and on farms and plantations. • Southerners felt that abolition of slavery would destroy their region’s economy.
Issues that divided the nation • Economic • North: • Industrial (steel, iron, machinery, cloth, merchants, craftsman) • People favored tariffs that protected factories from foreign competition.
South: • Agricultural (plantation style farming; relied on slave labor; King Cotton) • Opposed tariffs that would cause prices of manufactured goods to increase.
Issues that divided the nation 4. Political/Constitution: • North • Wanted a strong federal government (federal government’s power was supreme over that of states).
South: • Southerners believed in states’ rights (states had the power to declare any national law illegal).
WRITE TO LEARN In what ways were the conflicts between the North and south similar to a rivalry between brothers and sisters?
LESSON 2: STATES’ RIGHTS AND SLAVERY
SOL USI.9b: Explaining how the issues of states’ rights and slavery increased sectional tensions.
Essential Question What causes a society to become fragmented to the point where civil war is seen as the only solution?
What I Need to Know Cultural, economic, and political differences may divide nations and lead to civil war.
HOOK Ask students why people felt so strongly about the issue of slavery.
States’ Rights and Slavery • The South feared the North would take control of Congress.
State’s Rights and Slavery • Southerners began to proclaim states’ rights as a means of self-protection.
State’s Rights and Slavery • The North believed that the nation was a union and could not be divided.
State’s Rights and Slavery • While the Civil War did not begin as a war to abolish slavery, issues surrounding slavery deeply divided the nation.
States’ Rights and Slavery • An important issue separating the country related to the power of the Federal government.
States’ Rights and Slavery • Southerners believed that they had the power to declare any national law illegal.
States’ Rights and Slavery • Northerners believed that the national government’s power was supreme over that of the states.
States’ Rights and Slavery • Southerners felt that the abolition of slavery would destroy their region’s economy.
State’s Rights and Slavery • Northerners believed that slavery should be abolished for moral reasons.
1) Missouri Compromise • Missouri Compromise (1820): Missouri entered the Union as slave state; • Maine entered the Union as a free state.
Compromise of 1850 • California entered the Union as a free state. • Southwest territories would decide about slavery.
Kansas-Nebraska Act • People in each state would decide the slavery issue (“popular sovereignty”).
Even though they tried to compromise, they could not get past all of the issues dividing the nation. • Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, in South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War.
Southern Secession 1. Following Lincoln’s election, the Southern states seceded from the Union. 2. Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War.
Southern Secession 3. Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the United States was one nation that could not be divided or separated.
Southern Secession 4. Most Southerners believed that states had freely created and joined the union and could freely leave it.
WRITE TO LEARN Compare and contrast the Missouri Compromise to the Compromise of 1850
Ready! Set! Go!
The North favored _________ to protect factory owners and workers from foreign competition.
Southerners _____ tariffs that would cause manufactured goods to increase.
_________ believed that they had the power to declare any national law illegal.
Northerners believed that the _____________ power was supreme over that of the states.