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The Stormy Sixties: 1960-1968 Chapter 38 AP Notes Objectives… Describe the high expectations of Kennedy’s New Frontier and political obstacles… Analyze the theory and practice of Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response” Describe Johnson’s succession to the presidency in 1963…

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The stormy sixties 1960 1968 l.jpg

The Stormy Sixties: 1960-1968

Chapter 38

AP Notes

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  • Describe the high expectations of Kennedy’s New Frontier and political obstacles…

  • Analyze the theory and practice of Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response”

  • Describe Johnson’s succession to the presidency in 1963…

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1960 Election

  • R.M. Nixon v. J.F. Kennedy

  • Obstacles for Kennedy….

    • Age

    • Religion

  • Promises…

  • Liberal Consensus…

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The Debates…

Kennedy Strengths V. RMN Weaknesses

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The Kennedy Cabinet

  • “The Best and the Brightest”

  • McGeorge Bundy – NSA

  • Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense

  • Dean Rusk-

    • Sec. of State

  • RFK- Attorney


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Kennedy’s New Frontier..

  • Higher minimum wage

  • Greater federal aid to education

  • Increased Social Security

  • Medical care for the elderly

  • Support for public housing

  • Anti-poverty measures – influenced by Michael Harrington’s The Other America

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  • Slight increase in minimum wage

  • Modest expansion of Social Security

  • Higher Education Act 1963

  • Area Redevelopment Act for Appalachia

  • Manpower Retraining Act of 1963…

  • NASA….

  • Commission on the Status of Women

    • Equal Pay Act of 1963

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Race to the Moon

  • In April, 1961 the USSR put the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin

  • JKF increased funding to NASA, $33 billion by 1969

  • Cape Canaveral and Houston Space Center were built

  • JFK pledged to go to the moon by the end of the 1960’s

  • Universities expanded science programs, new industries and technologies emerged

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JFK and Civil Rights

  • At first wanted to avoid the issue – too controversial

  • RFK was ordered to investigate racial injustices in the South

  • He sent federal troops to desegregate Old Miss (James Meredith)

  • He sent federal marshals during the Freedom Rides

  • Sent a Civil Rights bill to Congress in 1963

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Kennedy on CR?

  • Appointed approx. 40 African Americans to high federal positions

  • Thurgood Marshall apptd. to federal appellate court

  • Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity – fight discrimination in federal civil service and in corporations with government contracts

  • Invigorate CR division of Dept. of Justice

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The Freedom Riders?

  • Test the Court’s decision to end segregation on buses and public places

  • 1961 – interracial CORE group rode interstate buses

  • Attacked and beaten by white mobs in Birmingham and Anniston, AL

  • One bus was firebombed

  • In Montgomery riders were beaten with bats and pipes

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How did the government respond to the violence?

  • RFK sent 400 Federal Marshals for the rest of the ride

  • The ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel

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Integrating Ole Miss

  • Sept. 1962 – air force veteran James Meredith won his case to enroll

  • Gov. Ross Barnett refused to let him register

  • RFK sent federal marshals – Barnett encouraged resistance

  • Riots  2 killed, 169 marshals injured

  • JFK sent 5,000 troops Meredith went to school

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Birmingham, Alabama

  • MLK – challenged discriminatory hiring practices and segregated public facilities

  • King arrested – “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”….

  • May 2nd – 2,000 children marched…

  • Drew national attention – police used fire hoses, dogs, and beatings

  • Compromise agreement – forced desegregation

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Kennedy’s response?

  • Confrontations of 1960s disturbed him

  • Began to move more in favor of Civil Rights

  • Proposed a bill calling for an end to segregation in public places, banned discrimination wherever federal funding involved – advanced desegregation of public schools

  • Kennedy’s approval rating went up

  • Southern senators blocked the legislation

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March on Washington Rights bill

  • CR leaders planned the march to get support for Kennedy’s bill

  • August, 1963 – 250,000 people from all over the U.S.

  • Called for jobs and freedom

  • MLK – “I Have a Dream” speech

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Failures…. Rights bill

  • Over 300 bills sent to Congress – less than 50% passed

  • Congress rejected federal aid for :

    • Medical care for the elderly, education, cities, and mass transportation

  • Reasons? Close election – Kennedy doesn’t have a mandate and opposition from southern democrats and conservative republicans

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JFK’s Domestic Legacy? Rights bill

  • Strengthened executive branch

  • White House staff appointed by the President made many key decisions…

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Kennedy’s Foreign Policy? Rights bill

  • Shifted from aggressive containment to efforts at easing tensions

  • At first built up nuclear and conventional weapons

  • Increased defense budget

  • Created elite force – Special Forces – Green Berets to supplement CIA covert operations

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Peace Corps Rights bill

  • Young volunteers

  • Sent to third world nations for 2 years

  • Provide technical support and educational assistance

  • Epitomized Kennedy’s ideal of service by idealistic youth

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Peace Corps Rights bill – 35,000 volunteers in 60 nations

Alliance for Progress – offered economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries ($20 billion in aid) – A Marshall Plan for Latin America

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Kennedy and Vietnam… Rights bill

  • Pursued containment

  • Supported the Diem against southern Vietnamese insurgents – Vietcong

  • Sent Green Berets and military advisors

  • 1963 sent 16,000 support and combat troops to support Diem

  • Diem’s regime corrupt – failed to win support of the people

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Kennedy and Vietnam… Diem’s repressive regime.

  • South Vietnamese army continued to disintegrate

  • 1963 with knowledge of the CIA – a group of Vietnamese generals assassinated Diem and his top advisers

  • South Vietnam will be ruled by a series of generals for the duration of the war

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Berlin Wall? Diem’s repressive regime.

  • 1961 – JFK met with Khrushchev in Vienna to discuss the future of Germany

  • Khrushchev wanted a permanent division and to force U.S. out of W. Berlin

  • 3 million East Germans had fled to W. Berlin since end of WWII

  • Kennedy tried to stand up to him – asked Congress for increased defense funding

  • Soviets built the wall

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The Bay of Pigs… Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Jan. 1, 1959 – Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba

  • Many were sympathetic…

  • Eisenhower and CIA

    • Suspicious of land reforms

    • Revoked U.S. aid

  • Castro turned to the S.U.

  • U.S. severed diplomatic relations

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The Invasion? Diem’s repressive regime.

  • CIA trained and armed Cuban exiles for an invasion

  • Kennedy inherited the plan – but decided against air force cover

  • CIA thought there would be a popular uprising

  • It was a disaster and an embarrassment to Kennedy

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Cuban Missile Crisis… Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Most serious confrontation of the Cold War

  • Castro fearing U.S. invasion asked for Soviet assistance

  • S.U. sent intermediate range nuclear missiles to Cuba

  • U.S. U-2 flights took pictures of missile silos –

  • U.S. saw this as a direct threat to American cities

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October 22, 1962 – Kennedy addressed the nation… Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Informed the nation of danger

  • Demanded removal of all missiles

  • Ordered a strict naval “quarantine” of Cuba

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The Brink of War… Diem’s repressive regime.

  • 100,000 US troops readied in Florida to invade Cuba

  • Oct. 26-27 Khrushchev ordered 25 Soviet ships away from Cuba – avoided confrontation

  • Khrushchev offered to remove missiles if U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba

  • Also wanted removal of American weapons in Turkey

  • We complied – crisis over

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Soviet ships on the way to Cuba… Diem’s repressive regime.

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Outcome of the Crisis… Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Khrushchev’s prestige hurt – Kennedy’s bolstered

  • Hot Line set up between the two countries

  • Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    • Prohibited above ground, outer space, and underwater nuclear weapons tests

    • Underground testing – O.K.

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The Assassination of JFK… Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Dallas, Texas – November 22, 1963

  • Accused killer – Lee Harvey Oswald

  • Two days later – Oswald shot and killed on national T.V. by Jack Ruby

  • Chief Justice Earl Warren appointed to head a commission to investigate the killing – Warren Commission said Oswald was the lone gunman

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The Kennedy’s Arrive in Dallas Diem’s repressive regime.

LBJ, Jackie Kennedy, and JFK

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LBJ and The Great Society Diem’s repressive regime.

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Objectives…. Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Describe LBJ’s succession to the Presidency, his landslide victory in 1964, and the Great Society

  • Discuss the course of the black movement of the 1960s

  • Indicate how Johnson led the U.s. deeper into the Vietnam War

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What was LBJ’s path to power? Diem’s repressive regime.

  • From Texas

  • 1937 – New Deal Congressman

  • FDR helped him secure key committee assignments

  • 1948 – Senator from Texas

  • 1955 Senate majority leader

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LBJ’s path to power… Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Master politician – very persuasive

  • Knew how to handle Congress to secure passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957

  • Chosen by Kennedy family to be Vice President…..

  • Given the Oath of Office aboard Air Force One….

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How did Johnson complete Kennedy’s agenda? Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Kennedy was the inspiration to solve world and national problems

  • Johnson – got the job done

    • Tax cut bill

    • Civil rights bill

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Tax Cut Diem’s repressive regime.

  • February 1964 tax reduction of over $10 billion passed into law

  • Spurred economic growth….

  • People spent more

  • More profit for business

  • Increased tax revenues

  • Lowered deficit from $6 billion to 4 billion

  • It worked!!!!

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What was LBJ’s role on Civil Rights? Diem’s repressive regime.

  • After Kennedy shot – Johnson pledged to carry on his work

  • Used his political skill to see that Kennedy’s bill was passed

  • Passed in the House – filibustered in Senate

  • Johnson ended filibuster and Kennedy’s bill became the Civil Rights Act of 1964

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Civil Rights Act of 1964 Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender

  • Gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters and all public places

  • Gave government more power to desegregate and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

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What was Mississippi Freedom Summer? Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Summer of 1964 – CORE and SNCC

  • Voting drives in the deep South

  • June – 3 civil rights workers disappeared murdered by KKK and police

  • Project workers suffered 1,000 arrests, 80 beatings, 35 shootings, and 30 bombings

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Mississippi Freedom Summer - 1964 Diem’s repressive regime.

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James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner Diem’s repressive regime. – murdered Civil Rights workers

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Successes of Mississippi Freedom Summer? Diem’s repressive regime.

  • Brought national attention to Mississippi racism

  • Forty freedom schools

  • 60,000 black voters joined the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

  • MFDP sent delegates to Democratic National Convention challenging the all-white delegates

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“In this America, the land of the free and the home of the brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

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The Selma Campaign brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

  • In 1965 SNCC organized a voting campaign in Selma, Alabama

  • 2,000 African-Americans had been arrested

  • On March 7th, 1965 , 600 protestors began the march from Selma to Montgomery, AL

  • Police swung whips, clubs and used tear-gas

  • On March 21, 3,000 members led by MLK with Federal Protection marched

  • The numbers grew to 25,000 marchers

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The Voting Rights Act of 1965 brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

  • That summer LBJ signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965

  • The act eliminated literacy tests, allowed federal officials to register voters

  • The 24th Amendment to the Constitution eliminated poll taxes

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Violence in northern cities? brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

  • Centuries of de facto segregation had produced social and economic inequalities

  • Slums, high unemployment, poor schools all contributed to desperation

  • Aggressive Police was a point of contention

  • In July 1964, a race riot erupted in Harlem after a 15 year old black student was killed

  • On Aug. 11th, 1965 the worst riot erupted in Watts, Los Angeles

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  • Watts- 34 deaths, $200 million in damages brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

  • Detroit 1967 – 43 deaths, $40 million in property damages

  • In 1966 and 67 more than 100 riots and violent clashes took place

  • Newark, San Francisco, Milwaukee, Phila., Cleveland, and Dayton

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Detroit brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

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What caused race riots and the destruction? brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

  • Heightened expectations from the civil rights movement and LBJ’s promises in the Great Society that were not realized

  • “White Racism”  poverty, police brutality

  • The Kerner Commission recommended extensive public housing, integrated schools, 2 million new jobs, and a national system of income supplementation

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Malcolm X and Black Consciousness brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”

  • Malcolm Little joined The Nation of Islam when he was in prison and changed his name to Malcolm X

  • Preached Elijah Muhammad’s views that whites were the cause of the problem and black should separate from society

  • Preached black supremacy

  • Received media attention which resulted in resentment from other Nation of Islam members

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  • In March of 1964 - broke with the Nation and went on the pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Malcolm X returned and preached an extremely moderate message, found a new tolerant Muslim organization and proposed working with Dr. MLK

  • On Feb. 21, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam

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What was Johnson’s agenda? pilgrimage to Mecca

  • War on Poverty

  • Create a Great Society

  • Economic Opportunity Act - 1964

    • Job Corps Youth Training Program

    • VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)

    • Project Head Start

    • Community Action Program – encouraged poor people to participate in public works programs

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Job Corps – Johnson visits pilgrimage to Mecca

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Project Head Start pilgrimage to Mecca

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The Election of 1964 pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Republican nominated Barry Goldwater of Arizona

    • Conservative

    • Attacked Social Security and TVA

    • Suggested use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam and Cuba

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Johnson’s 1964 Campaign Ad pilgrimage to Mecca

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Johnson’s victory… pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Most Americans in tune with LBJ

    • Agreed that government should help solve nation’s problems

  • LBJ played on people’s fears

    • Goldwater favored more intervention in Vietnam

    • LBJ assured that he would not send more troops

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Results of the election… pilgrimage to Mecca

  • LBJ won by a landslide

    • 61% of the popular vote

    • 486 electoral votes

  • Goldwater – 52 electoral votes

  • Democrats increased majority of Congress

    • LBJ no longer needed help of Southern Democrats to pass legislation

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“Landslide Lyndon” pilgrimage to Mecca

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Johnson’s Vision for America pilgrimage to Mecca

  • The Great Society

  • End poverty and racial injustice

  • Higher standard of living and equal opportunity

  • By end of presidency – enacted 206 measures

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“The Johnson Treatment” pilgrimage to Mecca

LBJ was the master of the Senate – could always get his bills passed

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Johnson introduces Great Society pilgrimage to Mecca

“. . The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice, to which we are totally committed in our time. But that is just the beginning. . . "

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Elements of the Great Society… pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

    • $1 billion in federal aid

    • Textbooks and library materials

  • Medicare…

  • Medicaid…

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Housing…. pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Money for 240,000 units of low-rent public housing

  • Aid to low and moderate income families to buy homes

  • Creation of Department of Housing and Urban Development

  • Appointment of Robert Weaver as head of HUD – 1st African American in Cabinet

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Immigration Act of 1965 pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Ended quotas based on nationality

  • Reversed immigration laws of the 1920s

  • Opened the door for non-European immigrants to come to the U.S.

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Johnson’s War… pilgrimage to Mecca

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LBJ Expanded the Conflict in Vietnam pilgrimage to Mecca

  • After Diem’s death the South was unstable

  • LBJ felt US creditability is at stake and he did not want to give in to communist aggression

  • Remembered Truman’s “loss of China”

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Gulf of Tonkin Incident pilgrimage to Mecca

  • In August 1964, a North Vietnamese gun boat fired a torpedo at The USS Maddox

  • Two days later the Maddox and another destroyer opened fire on the North

  • The USS Maddox had been collecting information off the coast of N. Vietnam

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Gulf of Tonkin Resolution pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Johnson asked Congress for permission to extend bombing into North Vietnam

  • Congress adopted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which gave LBJ broad military powers in Vietnam – the equivalent of a blank check in Vietnam

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The Reality? pilgrimage to Mecca

  • LBJ had prepared the resolution months before hand

  • Public was not aware that we had been conducting raids against N. Vietnam

  • Commander of one of the Am. Destroyers not really sure an attack had taken place

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Operation Rolling Thunder pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Limited bombing had failed to slow movement of communists across the border to S.V.

  • Government in S.V. near collapse

  • Vietcong fired on U.S. Marine base – killing 8 marines and wounding 100+

  • Reprisal against N. Vietnam

  • Campaign of gradually intensifying air raids

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Escalation… pilgrimage to Mecca

  • In March 1965 LBJ began sending troops

  • Sec. of State advised LBJ to deploy troops

  • By June of 1965, 50,000 US troops were fighting in Vietnam

  • By the end of 1965, 180,000 US troops were sent to Vietnam

  • By 1967 there were 500,000 US troops in Vietnam

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War of Attrition? pilgrimage to Mecca

  • General William Westmoreland

  • Bombing would exhaust N.V. resources

  • U.S. ground forces defeat the Vietcong in S.V.

  • VC defect and supporters scatter

  • Restore political stability to South Vietnam

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War of Attrition? pilgrimage to Mecca

  • US bombers pounded VC and North Vietnamese positions

    - Napalm and Agent Orange

  • VC would not surrender

    - high casualties

    - North supplied by China and USSR

  • By 1967 - 3 million refugees due to US Seek and Destroy missions

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Search…. pilgrimage to Mecca

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And Destroy… pilgrimage to Mecca

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Credibility Gap? pilgrimage to Mecca

“We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.”

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Credibility Gap? pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Americans viewed scenes of the war on T.V.

  • Told that we were defending freedom

  • Saw human suffering

  • Read about bombing of population centers and destruction of southern villages

  • Told that we were winning the war but casualty figures mounted to 800/month in 1967

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Senator J. William Fullbright pilgrimage to Mecca

  • Chaired Senate Foreign Relations Committee

  • Criticized the war

  • Called for a negotiated withdrawal

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Financial Cost of the War? pilgrimage to Mecca

  • $21 billion/year

  • Levied 10% surcharge on individual and corporate taxes

  • Tapped into Social Security fund

  • Inflation