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The Stormy Sixties: 1960-1968 Chapter 38 AP Notes Objectives… Describe the high expectations of Kennedy’s New Frontier and political obstacles… Analyze the theory and practice of Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response” Describe Johnson’s succession to the presidency in 1963…

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  • Describe the high expectations of Kennedy’s New Frontier and political obstacles…
  • Analyze the theory and practice of Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response”
  • Describe Johnson’s succession to the presidency in 1963…
1960 election
1960 Election
  • R.M. Nixon v. J.F. Kennedy
  • Obstacles for Kennedy….
    • Age
    • Religion
  • Promises…
  • Liberal Consensus…
the debates
The Debates…

Kennedy Strengths V. RMN Weaknesses

the kennedy cabinet
The Kennedy Cabinet
  • “The Best and the Brightest”
  • McGeorge Bundy – NSA
  • Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense
  • Dean Rusk-
    • Sec. of State
  • RFK- Attorney


kennedy s new frontier
Kennedy’s New Frontier..
  • Higher minimum wage
  • Greater federal aid to education
  • Increased Social Security
  • Medical care for the elderly
  • Support for public housing
  • Anti-poverty measures – influenced by Michael Harrington’s The Other America
  • Slight increase in minimum wage
  • Modest expansion of Social Security
  • Higher Education Act 1963
  • Area Redevelopment Act for Appalachia
  • Manpower Retraining Act of 1963…
  • NASA….
  • Commission on the Status of Women
    • Equal Pay Act of 1963
race to the moon
Race to the Moon
  • In April, 1961 the USSR put the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin
  • JKF increased funding to NASA, $33 billion by 1969
  • Cape Canaveral and Houston Space Center were built
  • JFK pledged to go to the moon by the end of the 1960’s
  • Universities expanded science programs, new industries and technologies emerged
jfk and civil rights
JFK and Civil Rights
  • At first wanted to avoid the issue – too controversial
  • RFK was ordered to investigate racial injustices in the South
  • He sent federal troops to desegregate Old Miss (James Meredith)
  • He sent federal marshals during the Freedom Rides
  • Sent a Civil Rights bill to Congress in 1963
kennedy on cr
Kennedy on CR?
  • Appointed approx. 40 African Americans to high federal positions
  • Thurgood Marshall apptd. to federal appellate court
  • Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity – fight discrimination in federal civil service and in corporations with government contracts
  • Invigorate CR division of Dept. of Justice
the freedom riders
The Freedom Riders?
  • Test the Court’s decision to end segregation on buses and public places
  • 1961 – interracial CORE group rode interstate buses
  • Attacked and beaten by white mobs in Birmingham and Anniston, AL
  • One bus was firebombed
  • In Montgomery riders were beaten with bats and pipes
how did the government respond to the violence
How did the government respond to the violence?
  • RFK sent 400 Federal Marshals for the rest of the ride
  • The ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel
integrating ole miss
Integrating Ole Miss
  • Sept. 1962 – air force veteran James Meredith won his case to enroll
  • Gov. Ross Barnett refused to let him register
  • RFK sent federal marshals – Barnett encouraged resistance
  • Riots  2 killed, 169 marshals injured
  • JFK sent 5,000 troops Meredith went to school
birmingham alabama
Birmingham, Alabama
  • MLK – challenged discriminatory hiring practices and segregated public facilities
  • King arrested – “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”….
  • May 2nd – 2,000 children marched…
  • Drew national attention – police used fire hoses, dogs, and beatings
  • Compromise agreement – forced desegregation
kennedy s response
Kennedy’s response?
  • Confrontations of 1960s disturbed him
  • Began to move more in favor of Civil Rights
  • Proposed a bill calling for an end to segregation in public places, banned discrimination wherever federal funding involved – advanced desegregation of public schools
  • Kennedy’s approval rating went up
  • Southern senators blocked the legislation
march on washington
March on Washington
  • CR leaders planned the march to get support for Kennedy’s bill
  • August, 1963 – 250,000 people from all over the U.S.
  • Called for jobs and freedom
  • MLK – “I Have a Dream” speech
  • Over 300 bills sent to Congress – less than 50% passed
  • Congress rejected federal aid for :
    • Medical care for the elderly, education, cities, and mass transportation
  • Reasons? Close election – Kennedy doesn’t have a mandate and opposition from southern democrats and conservative republicans
jfk s domestic legacy
JFK’s Domestic Legacy?
  • Strengthened executive branch
  • White House staff appointed by the President made many key decisions…
kennedy s foreign policy
Kennedy’s Foreign Policy?
  • Shifted from aggressive containment to efforts at easing tensions
  • At first built up nuclear and conventional weapons
  • Increased defense budget
  • Created elite force – Special Forces – Green Berets to supplement CIA covert operations
peace corps
Peace Corps
  • Young volunteers
  • Sent to third world nations for 2 years
  • Provide technical support and educational assistance
  • Epitomized Kennedy’s ideal of service by idealistic youth
Peace Corps – 35,000 volunteers in 60 nations

Alliance for Progress – offered economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries ($20 billion in aid) – A Marshall Plan for Latin America

kennedy and vietnam
Kennedy and Vietnam…
  • Pursued containment
  • Supported the Diem against southern Vietnamese insurgents – Vietcong
  • Sent Green Berets and military advisors
  • 1963 sent 16,000 support and combat troops to support Diem
  • Diem’s regime corrupt – failed to win support of the people
kennedy and vietnam41
Kennedy and Vietnam…
  • South Vietnamese army continued to disintegrate
  • 1963 with knowledge of the CIA – a group of Vietnamese generals assassinated Diem and his top advisers
  • South Vietnam will be ruled by a series of generals for the duration of the war
berlin wall
Berlin Wall?
  • 1961 – JFK met with Khrushchev in Vienna to discuss the future of Germany
  • Khrushchev wanted a permanent division and to force U.S. out of W. Berlin
  • 3 million East Germans had fled to W. Berlin since end of WWII
  • Kennedy tried to stand up to him – asked Congress for increased defense funding
  • Soviets built the wall
the bay of pigs
The Bay of Pigs…
  • Jan. 1, 1959 – Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba
  • Many were sympathetic…
  • Eisenhower and CIA
    • Suspicious of land reforms
    • Revoked U.S. aid
  • Castro turned to the S.U.
  • U.S. severed diplomatic relations
the invasion
The Invasion?
  • CIA trained and armed Cuban exiles for an invasion
  • Kennedy inherited the plan – but decided against air force cover
  • CIA thought there would be a popular uprising
  • It was a disaster and an embarrassment to Kennedy
cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis…
  • Most serious confrontation of the Cold War
  • Castro fearing U.S. invasion asked for Soviet assistance
  • S.U. sent intermediate range nuclear missiles to Cuba
  • U.S. U-2 flights took pictures of missile silos –
  • U.S. saw this as a direct threat to American cities
october 22 1962 kennedy addressed the nation
October 22, 1962 – Kennedy addressed the nation…
  • Informed the nation of danger
  • Demanded removal of all missiles
  • Ordered a strict naval “quarantine” of Cuba
the brink of war
The Brink of War…
  • 100,000 US troops readied in Florida to invade Cuba
  • Oct. 26-27 Khrushchev ordered 25 Soviet ships away from Cuba – avoided confrontation
  • Khrushchev offered to remove missiles if U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba
  • Also wanted removal of American weapons in Turkey
  • We complied – crisis over
outcome of the crisis
Outcome of the Crisis…
  • Khrushchev’s prestige hurt – Kennedy’s bolstered
  • Hot Line set up between the two countries
  • Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty
    • Prohibited above ground, outer space, and underwater nuclear weapons tests
    • Underground testing – O.K.
the assassination of jfk
The Assassination of JFK…
  • Dallas, Texas – November 22, 1963
  • Accused killer – Lee Harvey Oswald
  • Two days later – Oswald shot and killed on national T.V. by Jack Ruby
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren appointed to head a commission to investigate the killing – Warren Commission said Oswald was the lone gunman

The Kennedy’s Arrive in Dallas

LBJ, Jackie Kennedy, and JFK

  • Describe LBJ’s succession to the Presidency, his landslide victory in 1964, and the Great Society
  • Discuss the course of the black movement of the 1960s
  • Indicate how Johnson led the U.s. deeper into the Vietnam War
what was lbj s path to power
What was LBJ’s path to power?
  • From Texas
  • 1937 – New Deal Congressman
  • FDR helped him secure key committee assignments
  • 1948 – Senator from Texas
  • 1955 Senate majority leader
lbj s path to power
LBJ’s path to power…
  • Master politician – very persuasive
  • Knew how to handle Congress to secure passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957
  • Chosen by Kennedy family to be Vice President…..
  • Given the Oath of Office aboard Air Force One….
how did johnson complete kennedy s agenda
How did Johnson complete Kennedy’s agenda?
  • Kennedy was the inspiration to solve world and national problems
  • Johnson – got the job done
    • Tax cut bill
    • Civil rights bill
tax cut
Tax Cut
  • February 1964 tax reduction of over $10 billion passed into law
  • Spurred economic growth….
  • People spent more
  • More profit for business
  • Increased tax revenues
  • Lowered deficit from $6 billion to 4 billion
  • It worked!!!!
what was lbj s role on civil rights
What was LBJ’s role on Civil Rights?
  • After Kennedy shot – Johnson pledged to carry on his work
  • Used his political skill to see that Kennedy’s bill was passed
  • Passed in the House – filibustered in Senate
  • Johnson ended filibuster and Kennedy’s bill became the Civil Rights Act of 1964
civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender
  • Gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters and all public places
  • Gave government more power to desegregate and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
what was mississippi freedom summer
What was Mississippi Freedom Summer?
  • Summer of 1964 – CORE and SNCC
  • Voting drives in the deep South
  • June – 3 civil rights workers disappeared murdered by KKK and police
  • Project workers suffered 1,000 arrests, 80 beatings, 35 shootings, and 30 bombings
successes of mississippi freedom summer
Successes of Mississippi Freedom Summer?
  • Brought national attention to Mississippi racism
  • Forty freedom schools
  • 60,000 black voters joined the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
  • MFDP sent delegates to Democratic National Convention challenging the all-white delegates
“In this America, the land of the free and the home of the brave, where we are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings?”
the selma campaign
The Selma Campaign
  • In 1965 SNCC organized a voting campaign in Selma, Alabama
  • 2,000 African-Americans had been arrested
  • On March 7th, 1965 , 600 protestors began the march from Selma to Montgomery, AL
  • Police swung whips, clubs and used tear-gas
  • On March 21, 3,000 members led by MLK with Federal Protection marched
  • The numbers grew to 25,000 marchers
the voting rights act of 1965
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • That summer LBJ signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • The act eliminated literacy tests, allowed federal officials to register voters
  • The 24th Amendment to the Constitution eliminated poll taxes
violence in northern cities
Violence in northern cities?
  • Centuries of de facto segregation had produced social and economic inequalities
  • Slums, high unemployment, poor schools all contributed to desperation
  • Aggressive Police was a point of contention
  • In July 1964, a race riot erupted in Harlem after a 15 year old black student was killed
  • On Aug. 11th, 1965 the worst riot erupted in Watts, Los Angeles
Watts- 34 deaths, $200 million in damages
  • Detroit 1967 – 43 deaths, $40 million in property damages
  • In 1966 and 67 more than 100 riots and violent clashes took place
  • Newark, San Francisco, Milwaukee, Phila., Cleveland, and Dayton
what caused race riots and the destruction
What caused race riots and the destruction?
  • Heightened expectations from the civil rights movement and LBJ’s promises in the Great Society that were not realized
  • “White Racism”  poverty, police brutality
  • The Kerner Commission recommended extensive public housing, integrated schools, 2 million new jobs, and a national system of income supplementation
malcolm x and black consciousness
Malcolm X and Black Consciousness
  • Malcolm Little joined The Nation of Islam when he was in prison and changed his name to Malcolm X
  • Preached Elijah Muhammad’s views that whites were the cause of the problem and black should separate from society
  • Preached black supremacy
  • Received media attention which resulted in resentment from other Nation of Islam members
In March of 1964 - broke with the Nation and went on the pilgrimage to Mecca
  • Malcolm X returned and preached an extremely moderate message, found a new tolerant Muslim organization and proposed working with Dr. MLK
  • On Feb. 21, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam
what was johnson s agenda
What was Johnson’s agenda?
  • War on Poverty
  • Create a Great Society
  • Economic Opportunity Act - 1964
    • Job Corps Youth Training Program
    • VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)
    • Project Head Start
    • Community Action Program – encouraged poor people to participate in public works programs
the election of 1964
The Election of 1964
  • Republican nominated Barry Goldwater of Arizona
    • Conservative
    • Attacked Social Security and TVA
    • Suggested use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam and Cuba
johnson s victory
Johnson’s victory…
  • Most Americans in tune with LBJ
    • Agreed that government should help solve nation’s problems
  • LBJ played on people’s fears
    • Goldwater favored more intervention in Vietnam
    • LBJ assured that he would not send more troops
results of the election
Results of the election…
  • LBJ won by a landslide
    • 61% of the popular vote
    • 486 electoral votes
  • Goldwater – 52 electoral votes
  • Democrats increased majority of Congress
    • LBJ no longer needed help of Southern Democrats to pass legislation
johnson s vision for america
Johnson’s Vision for America
  • The Great Society
  • End poverty and racial injustice
  • Higher standard of living and equal opportunity
  • By end of presidency – enacted 206 measures

“The Johnson Treatment”

LBJ was the master of the Senate – could always get his bills passed

johnson introduces great society
Johnson introduces Great Society

“. . The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice, to which we are totally committed in our time. But that is just the beginning. . . "

elements of the great society
Elements of the Great Society…
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
    • $1 billion in federal aid
    • Textbooks and library materials
  • Medicare…
  • Medicaid…
  • Money for 240,000 units of low-rent public housing
  • Aid to low and moderate income families to buy homes
  • Creation of Department of Housing and Urban Development
  • Appointment of Robert Weaver as head of HUD – 1st African American in Cabinet
immigration act of 1965
Immigration Act of 1965
  • Ended quotas based on nationality
  • Reversed immigration laws of the 1920s
  • Opened the door for non-European immigrants to come to the U.S.
lbj expanded the conflict in vietnam
LBJ Expanded the Conflict in Vietnam
  • After Diem’s death the South was unstable
  • LBJ felt US creditability is at stake and he did not want to give in to communist aggression
  • Remembered Truman’s “loss of China”
gulf of tonkin incident
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
  • In August 1964, a North Vietnamese gun boat fired a torpedo at The USS Maddox
  • Two days later the Maddox and another destroyer opened fire on the North
  • The USS Maddox had been collecting information off the coast of N. Vietnam
gulf of tonkin resolution
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • Johnson asked Congress for permission to extend bombing into North Vietnam
  • Congress adopted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which gave LBJ broad military powers in Vietnam – the equivalent of a blank check in Vietnam
the reality
The Reality?
  • LBJ had prepared the resolution months before hand
  • Public was not aware that we had been conducting raids against N. Vietnam
  • Commander of one of the Am. Destroyers not really sure an attack had taken place
operation rolling thunder
Operation Rolling Thunder
  • Limited bombing had failed to slow movement of communists across the border to S.V.
  • Government in S.V. near collapse
  • Vietcong fired on U.S. Marine base – killing 8 marines and wounding 100+
  • Reprisal against N. Vietnam
  • Campaign of gradually intensifying air raids
  • In March 1965 LBJ began sending troops
  • Sec. of State advised LBJ to deploy troops
  • By June of 1965, 50,000 US troops were fighting in Vietnam
  • By the end of 1965, 180,000 US troops were sent to Vietnam
  • By 1967 there were 500,000 US troops in Vietnam
war of attrition
War of Attrition?
  • General William Westmoreland
  • Bombing would exhaust N.V. resources
  • U.S. ground forces defeat the Vietcong in S.V.
  • VC defect and supporters scatter
  • Restore political stability to South Vietnam
war of attrition118
War of Attrition?
  • US bombers pounded VC and North Vietnamese positions

- Napalm and Agent Orange

  • VC would not surrender

- high casualties

- North supplied by China and USSR

  • By 1967 - 3 million refugees due to US Seek and Destroy missions
credibility gap
Credibility Gap?

“We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.”

credibility gap123
Credibility Gap?
  • Americans viewed scenes of the war on T.V.
  • Told that we were defending freedom
  • Saw human suffering
  • Read about bombing of population centers and destruction of southern villages
  • Told that we were winning the war but casualty figures mounted to 800/month in 1967
senator j william fullbright
Senator J. William Fullbright
  • Chaired Senate Foreign Relations Committee
  • Criticized the war
  • Called for a negotiated withdrawal
financial cost of the war
Financial Cost of the War?
  • $21 billion/year
  • Levied 10% surcharge on individual and corporate taxes
  • Tapped into Social Security fund
  • Inflation