The Stormy Sixties: 1960-1968 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Stormy Sixties: 1960-1968

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  1. The Stormy Sixties: 1960-1968 Chapter 38 AP Notes

  2. Objectives… • Describe the high expectations of Kennedy’s New Frontier and political obstacles… • Analyze the theory and practice of Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response” • Describe Johnson’s succession to the presidency in 1963…

  3. 1960 Election • R.M. Nixon v. J.F. Kennedy • Obstacles for Kennedy…. • Age • Religion • Promises… • Liberal Consensus…

  4. The Debates… Kennedy Strengths V. RMN Weaknesses

  5. What were the results of the 1960 election?

  6. Camelot….

  7. The Kennedy Cabinet • “The Best and the Brightest” • McGeorge Bundy – NSA • Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense • Dean Rusk- • Sec. of State • RFK- Attorney General

  8. Kennedy’s New Frontier.. • Higher minimum wage • Greater federal aid to education • Increased Social Security • Medical care for the elderly • Support for public housing • Anti-poverty measures – influenced by Michael Harrington’s The Other America

  9. Successes…. • Slight increase in minimum wage • Modest expansion of Social Security • Higher Education Act 1963 • Area Redevelopment Act for Appalachia • Manpower Retraining Act of 1963… • NASA…. • Commission on the Status of Women • Equal Pay Act of 1963

  10. Race to the Moon • In April, 1961 the USSR put the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin • JKF increased funding to NASA, $33 billion by 1969 • Cape Canaveral and Houston Space Center were built • JFK pledged to go to the moon by the end of the 1960’s • Universities expanded science programs, new industries and technologies emerged

  11. JFK and Civil Rights • At first wanted to avoid the issue – too controversial • RFK was ordered to investigate racial injustices in the South • He sent federal troops to desegregate Old Miss (James Meredith) • He sent federal marshals during the Freedom Rides • Sent a Civil Rights bill to Congress in 1963

  12. Kennedy on CR? • Appointed approx. 40 African Americans to high federal positions • Thurgood Marshall apptd. to federal appellate court • Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity – fight discrimination in federal civil service and in corporations with government contracts • Invigorate CR division of Dept. of Justice

  13. The Freedom Riders? • Test the Court’s decision to end segregation on buses and public places • 1961 – interracial CORE group rode interstate buses • Attacked and beaten by white mobs in Birmingham and Anniston, AL • One bus was firebombed • In Montgomery riders were beaten with bats and pipes

  14. How did the government respond to the violence? • RFK sent 400 Federal Marshals for the rest of the ride • The ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel

  15. Integrating Ole Miss • Sept. 1962 – air force veteran James Meredith won his case to enroll • Gov. Ross Barnett refused to let him register • RFK sent federal marshals – Barnett encouraged resistance • Riots  2 killed, 169 marshals injured • JFK sent 5,000 troops Meredith went to school

  16. Meredith being escorted by Federal Marshals

  17. Birmingham, Alabama • MLK – challenged discriminatory hiring practices and segregated public facilities • King arrested – “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”…. • May 2nd – 2,000 children marched… • Drew national attention – police used fire hoses, dogs, and beatings • Compromise agreement – forced desegregation

  18. Kennedy’s response? • Confrontations of 1960s disturbed him • Began to move more in favor of Civil Rights • Proposed a bill calling for an end to segregation in public places, banned discrimination wherever federal funding involved – advanced desegregation of public schools • Kennedy’s approval rating went up • Southern senators blocked the legislation

  19. June 11, 1963 – Kennedy addressed the nation – Civil Rights bill

  20. March on Washington • CR leaders planned the march to get support for Kennedy’s bill • August, 1963 – 250,000 people from all over the U.S. • Called for jobs and freedom • MLK – “I Have a Dream” speech

  21. March on Washington - 1963

  22. Failures…. • Over 300 bills sent to Congress – less than 50% passed • Congress rejected federal aid for : • Medical care for the elderly, education, cities, and mass transportation • Reasons? Close election – Kennedy doesn’t have a mandate and opposition from southern democrats and conservative republicans

  23. JFK’s Domestic Legacy? • Strengthened executive branch • White House staff appointed by the President made many key decisions…

  24. Kennedy’s Foreign Policy? • Shifted from aggressive containment to efforts at easing tensions • At first built up nuclear and conventional weapons • Increased defense budget • Created elite force – Special Forces – Green Berets to supplement CIA covert operations

  25. Peace Corps • Young volunteers • Sent to third world nations for 2 years • Provide technical support and educational assistance • Epitomized Kennedy’s ideal of service by idealistic youth

  26. Peace Corps – 35,000 volunteers in 60 nations Alliance for Progress – offered economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries ($20 billion in aid) – A Marshall Plan for Latin America

  27. Kennedy and Vietnam… • Pursued containment • Supported the Diem against southern Vietnamese insurgents – Vietcong • Sent Green Berets and military advisors • 1963 sent 16,000 support and combat troops to support Diem • Diem’s regime corrupt – failed to win support of the people

  28. Buddhist monk burning himself to death in protest over Diem’s repressive regime.

  29. Kennedy and Vietnam… • South Vietnamese army continued to disintegrate • 1963 with knowledge of the CIA – a group of Vietnamese generals assassinated Diem and his top advisers • South Vietnam will be ruled by a series of generals for the duration of the war

  30. Berlin Wall? • 1961 – JFK met with Khrushchev in Vienna to discuss the future of Germany • Khrushchev wanted a permanent division and to force U.S. out of W. Berlin • 3 million East Germans had fled to W. Berlin since end of WWII • Kennedy tried to stand up to him – asked Congress for increased defense funding • Soviets built the wall

  31. The Bay of Pigs… • Jan. 1, 1959 – Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba • Many were sympathetic… • Eisenhower and CIA • Suspicious of land reforms • Revoked U.S. aid • Castro turned to the S.U. • U.S. severed diplomatic relations

  32. The Invasion? • CIA trained and armed Cuban exiles for an invasion • Kennedy inherited the plan – but decided against air force cover • CIA thought there would be a popular uprising • It was a disaster and an embarrassment to Kennedy

  33. Cuban Missile Crisis… • Most serious confrontation of the Cold War • Castro fearing U.S. invasion asked for Soviet assistance • S.U. sent intermediate range nuclear missiles to Cuba • U.S. U-2 flights took pictures of missile silos – • U.S. saw this as a direct threat to American cities