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Hardware Models: Limiting Reagents and Theoretical Yields. Lab 4. Outline. Reactions in Chemistry Moles Limiting Reagents Theoretical Yield Using Analytical Balances Points of Interest Next Assignment. Reactions in Chemistry. Reactions are complex

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Reactions in Chemistry
  • Moles
  • Limiting Reagents
  • Theoretical Yield
  • Using Analytical Balances
  • Points of Interest
  • Next Assignment
reactions in chemistry
Reactions in Chemistry
  • Reactions are complex
  • Gases, solids and liquids all react differently
  • What you will be learning today are the basics only
  • Always work with balanced reactions
  • Balanced reactions provide us with molar ratios of reagents to products
moles
Moles
  • We cannot make direct comparisons in chemistry using concentration or mass - we use moles instead.
  • A mole is 6.022 x 1023 of anything.
  • This concept is similar to that of a dozen.
  • We will be using the concept of a dozen today since 6.022 x 1023 are too many items to count out.
limiting reagent
Limiting Reagent
  • A limiting reagent is the reagent you run out of first in a reaction.
  • The reagent that is in excess is called, excess reagent.
  • You must determine the limiting reagent of a reaction before you can determine the theoretical yield of product.
  • You will be limited by mass and number of items in some of your questions today to demonstrate this point.
theoretical yield
Theoretical Yield
  • Theoretical yield is calculated to predict how much product can be produced based on the limiting reagent calculation.
  • You will use your predicted masses (theoretical values) to do your ratio calculations today.
  • After the theoretical yield is established, and the actual yield obtained, one can calculate percent yield.
using analytical balances
Using Analytical Balances
  • Each balance auto-calibrates
  • Carefully open a door and make sure the basket is fully hinged
  • Place a blue weigh boat on the basket
  • Close the door completely and without slamming it
  • Tare the boat
  • Add the hardware and close the door carefully
  • Record the mass to the closest 0.1 mg (0.0001 g)
  • Remove your hardware, close the door(s) carefully and push the zero button
points of interest
Points of Interest
  • Collect the required pieces of hardware from their containers.
  • Place these in a white plastic weigh boat.
  • The hardware may contain some oil. Wear gloves if you don’t want oil on your hands.
  • Use the plastic weigh boat to carry your hardware. It does not fit in the balance.
  • Use a blue plastic weigh boat in the balance to weigh your hardware.
  • Small pieces get lost easily. Please keep track of ALL your equipment.
lab 5 reminder
Lab 5 Reminder
  • Read the required reading sections in your textbook and lab manual as you prepare for Lab 5.
    • Go through the significant figure molar mass tutorial in Blackboard before attempting the pre-lab questions.
    • Use the periodic table in your lab manual.
  • Complete and submit your pre-lab questions by the deadline.
  • Study for the quiz.
  • Submit your Lab 4 Report at the start of next week’s lab.
in two weeks lab 6
In Two Weeks - Lab 6
  • Read the lab write-up in your manual (pp151 - 174).
  • Complete the pre-lab questions (pp. 174 - 188) in MicroLab™ in the SCICom lab (NSB 204), Chemistry Resource Center (CPSB 302K) or on your personal computer if you download the program. The program may be downloaded from http://www.microlabinfo.com under the Downloads link.
  • Take this exercise seriously. You will be required to complete a similar exercise in lab in two weeks without help from your lab manual.