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SOME THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN SEXUALITY. I. Psychoanalytic Theory - Sigmund Freud II. Biological Functionalism (Sociobiology) III. Motivational Theories. SOME THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN SEXUALITY. IV. Learning Theories A. Operant Conditioning

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some theoretical perspectives on human sexuality
SOME THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN SEXUALITY

I. Psychoanalytic Theory -

Sigmund Freud

II. Biological Functionalism

(Sociobiology)

III. Motivational Theories

some theoretical perspectives on human sexuality2
SOME THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN SEXUALITY

IV. Learning Theories

A. Operant Conditioning

B. Classical Conditioning

C. Social Learning

V. Cognitive Theories

some theoretical perspectives on human sexuality3
SOME THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN SEXUALITY

VI. Sociological Approaches

VII. Anthropological

Approaches

i psychoanalytic theory
I. Psychoanalytic Theory
  • The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
  • Perhaps Freud’s most influential idea - the unconscious mind
  • Childhood sexuality?

Sigmund Freud

i psychoanalytic theory5
I. Psychoanalytic Theory

3 Divisions of the Personality-

a. ID

-the reservoir of psychic energy

-pleasure principle

-unconscious

-biological part of personality

i psychoanalytic theory6
I. Psychoanalytic Theory

3 Divisions of the Personality-

b. EGO

-psychological part of personality

-reality principle

-mostly conscious

i psychoanalytic theory7
I. Psychoanalytic Theory

3 Divisions of the Personality-

c. SUPEREGO

-social part of personality

-idealism principle (conscience)

-partially conscious

i psychoanalytic theory8
I. Psychoanalytic Theory

Stages of Psycho-Sexual Development

  • oral (0 - 1)
  • anal (2)
  • phallic (3 - 5 or 6)
  • latency (7 - puberty)
  • genital (Adolescence - Adulthood)
i psychoanalytic theory9
I. Psychoanalytic Theory

Stages of Psycho-Sexual Development

Phallic Stage for boys - Oedipus Complex, castration anxiety

Phallic Stage for girls - Electra Complex, penis envy

i psychoanalytic theory10
I. Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Freud on women
  • female sexuality is inherently passive & masochistic
  • distinguished between vaginal (mature) orgasm and clitoral (immature) orgasm
ii biological functionalism
II. Biological Functionalism

•Sexual behavior is viewed as a product of evolution and natural selection.

• Sexual behaviors which lead to the passing on of one’s genes to healthy offspring tend to be selected.

Charles Darwin

"descent with modification"

evidence of evolution the fossil record
Evidence of Evolution: The Fossil Record

A geological cross

section of the Grand

Staircase-Escalante

National Monument

in Utah shows layers

of sedimentary rock.

These layers reveal

deposits laid down

over millions of years.

Older fossils are found

in the lower layers,

revealing the

succession of organisms over time

evidence of evolution common structures imply common ancestors
Evidence of Evolution: Common Structures imply common ancestors

Inferences about common descent derived from paleontology are reinforced by comparative anatomy. For example, the skeletons of humans, mice, and bats are strikingly similar, despite the different ways of life of these animals and the diversity of environments in which they flourish.

evidence of evolution the distribution of species
Evidence of Evolution: The Distribution of Species

Biogeography also has contributed evidence for descent from common ancestors. Evolutionary theory explains that biological diversity results from the descendants of local or migrant predecessors becoming adapted to their diverse environments.

evidence from molecular biology
Evidence from Molecular Biology

The unifying principle of common descent is reinforced by the discoveries of modern biochemistry and molecular biology.The code used to translate nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences is essentially the same in all organisms. Moreover, proteins in all organisms are invariably composed of the same set of 20 amino acids.

biological functionalism

Biological Functionalism

Another important process in evolution is sexual selection--

• Competition among members of one gender (usually males) for mating access

• Preferential choice of one gender (usually females) for certain members of the other gender

ii biological functionalism18
II. Biological Functionalism

Robin Fox -

“...a great deal that can be said about human sexuality can be disposed of as the sexual behavior to be expected from a large-bodied, large-brained, slow-breeding omnivorous mammal.”

ii biological functionalism19
II. Biological Functionalism

Lionel Tiger -

“There’s something intrinsically sensible in the idea that what pleases nearly all people must have helped most of their ancestors endure.”

biological functionalism in contemporary evolutionary psychology
Biological Functionalism in Contemporary Evolutionary Psychology

• 3 Examples:

1) the nuclear family

2) beauty

3) the double standard

slide21

TheNuclearFamily-Women have evolved tobe sexuallyreceptive as away of keeping the men around.

Biological Functionalism

beauty

Biological

Functionalism

BEAUTY

Attributes men find

attractive in women

are related to fertility

slide23

BEAUTY?

Which of these

women do you

find most

attractive?

slide24

BEAUTY?

Which of these

men do you

find most

attractive?

slide25

Dr. Dev Singh of the

University of Texas

manipulated the waist/hip

ratios of these 7 Barbees

biological functionalism27
Biological Functionalism

The

Double

Standard