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Chapter 2. How an OS Works with Hardware and Other Software. You Will Learn…. About the hardware components of a PC How an OS relates to hardware and software About the system resources that hardware and software use for communication. Introducing Hardware. Ports Used by External Devices

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

How an OS Works with Hardware and Other Software

you will learn
You Will Learn…
  • About the hardware components of a PC
  • How an OS relates to hardware and software
  • About the system resources that hardware and software use for communication

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

introducing hardware
Introducing Hardware
  • Ports Used by External Devices
  • The CPU
  • Memory or RAM
  • Buses on the Motherboard
  • BIOS on the Motherboard and Other Circuit Boards
  • CMOS Setup Chip
  • Hard Drives and Other Secondary Storage Devices

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

internal devices
Internal Devices

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

ports used by external devices
Ports Used by External Devices

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

the motherboard
The Motherboard
  • Largest and most complex circuit board
  • All devices connect to the CPU by way of the motherboard
  • Provides ports for external devices and slots for expansion cards

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

the motherboard continued
The Motherboard(continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

motherboard components
Motherboard Components
  • Central processing unit (CPU)
  • Random access memory (RAM)
  • Traces or wires
  • Expansion slots

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

motherboard components continued
Motherboard Components(continued)
  • Connectors for drives (e.g., hard drive, floppy drive, CD-ROM drive)
  • ROM BIOS memory chip
    • Permanently stores instructions that control basic hardware functions
  • CMOS configuration chip
  • Power supply connections

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

the cpu
The CPU
  • Controls all hardware components in the computer
  • Installed in a slot or socket in the motherboard
  • Operate in one of two modes
    • Real mode (16 bits)
    • Protected mode (32 bits)
  • Has lines coming to it that are embedded on motherboard collectively called a bus

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

the cpu continued
The CPU(continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

memory or ram
Memory or RAM
  • Temporarily holds data and instructions
  • Stored on memory modules
    • SIMMs
    • DIMMs (most common)
    • RIMMs
  • Memory addresses
    • Numbers assigned to each usable cell of memory

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

system properties
System Properties

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

buses on the motherboard
Buses on the Motherboard
  • 8-bit and 16-bit ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) buses
  • System bus (memory bus, front-side bus, local bus)
  • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus
  • AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) bus used for a single video card

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

buses on the motherboard continued
Buses on the Motherboard(continued)
  • USB bus that provides USB ports for slower I/O buses
  • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) used for faster I/O devices

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

agp slot and pci slots
AGP slot and PCI slots

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

bios on the motherboard and other circuit boards
BIOS on the Motherboard and Other Circuit Boards
  • Motherboard contains vital ROM chip that contains basic input/output system (BIOS)
    • Startup BIOS (used to start the computer)
    • System BIOS (used by the OS to manage simple devices)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

advanced configuration and power interface acpi
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
  • Power-saving feature
  • Allows system to be powered up by external device such as a keyboard
  • Supported by Windows 9x and 2000/XP
  • Supported by most recent motherboard BIOS

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

plug and play
Plug and Play
  • Makes hardware device installations easier
  • Plug and Play BIOS begins process of configuring hardware devices
  • Plug and Play OS uses information from the BIOS to complete hardware configuration
  • Windows 9x and Windows 2000/XP support Plug and Play
    • Windows NT does not

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

plug and play bios
Plug and Play BIOS

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

cmos setup chip
CMOS Setup Chip
  • Contains very small amount of memory adequate to hold computer configuration information
  • Responsible for remembering
    • Current date and time
    • Which hard and floppy drives are present
    • How serial and parallel ports are configured, etc.

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

cmos setup chip continued
CMOS Setup Chip (continued)
  • Retains its data even when computer is turned off
  • Program to change CMOS is stored in ROM BIOS

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

primary storage and secondary storage
Primary Storage and Secondary Storage
  • Secondary storage devices
    • Store data and instructions permanently
    • To be processed, data and instructions must be copied from secondary storage to memory
    • Common devices: hard drives, floppy disk drives, CD-ROM drives, DVD drives, and Zip drives
  • Primary storage (memory)
    • Holds data and instructions temporarily

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

a hard drive subsystem
A Hard Drive Subsystem

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

hard drives and other secondary storage devices
Hard Drives and Other Secondary Storage Devices
  • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) standards govern how hard drives work
  • Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) standards govern how secondary devices interface with a system

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

hard drives and other secondary storage devices continued
Hard Drives and Other Secondary Storage Devices (continued)
  • Most motherboards have EIDE connections for two cables (primary and secondary)
  • Each cable can connect two devices for a total of four devices in one system

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

how an operating system works
How an Operating System Works
  • An OS Manages Files and Folders
  • An OS Manages Applications
  • An OS Manages Hardware
  • BIOS and Device Drivers Use System Resources

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

an os manages files and folders
An OS Manages Files and Folders
  • OS uses a file system to organize files and folders on secondary storage
  • Windows uses:
    • FAT or FAT16 (File Allocation Table)
    • FAT32 (Most recent version of FAT16)
    • NTFS (New Technology File System)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

tracks sectors and clusters
Tracks, Sectors, and Clusters
  • Tracks are concentric circles on the surface of a disk
  • A Sectors is a segment of a track
  • A Cluster:
    • is made up of one or more sectors
    • is the smallest unit of space on a disk for data storage

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

tracks sectors and clusters continued
Tracks, Sectors, and Clusters(continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

files and directories
Files and Directories
  • Every OS manages a hard drive by using directories, subdirectories, and files
  • A directory table is a list of files and subdirectories
  • The root directory is created when a hard drive is first installed and formatted
  • For drive C, the root directory is written as C:\

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

hard drive file organization
Hard Drive File Organization

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

partitions and logical drives on a hard drive
Partitions and Logical Drives on a Hard Drive
  • A hard drive is divided into one or more partitions
  • Primary partition, usually C:
  • Only one extended partition permitted

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

extended partition
Extended Partition
  • Can have one or more logical drives (or volumes)
  • Each logical drive formatted with its own file system
  • Each logical drive has its own root directory and subdirectories

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

organization of a hard drive
Organization of a Hard Drive

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

an os manages applications
An OS Manages Applications
  • The OS installs and runs application software
  • An application depends on an OS to:
    • Provide access to hardware resources
    • Manage its data in memory
    • Manage its data in secondary storage
    • Perform other background tasks

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

loading application software using the windows desktop
Loading Application Software Using the Windows Desktop

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

loading application software using the windows desktop continued
Loading Application Software Using the Windows Desktop(continued)
  • Use a shortcut
  • Use the Start menu
  • Use the Run command
  • Use Windows Explorer or My Computer

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

loading application software using the windows desktop continued1
Loading Application Software Using the Windows Desktop(continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

real 16 bit and protected 32 bit operating modes
Real (16-Bit) and Protected (32-Bit) Operating Modes
  • Real Mode
    • Applications have complete access to hardware

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

real 16 bit and protected 32 bit operating modes continued
Real (16-Bit) and Protected (32-Bit) Operating Modes (continued)
  • Protected Mode
    • OS controls how application can access hardware
    • More than one program can run at a time and each is “protected” from other programs accessing hardware
    • Enables preemptive multitasking, in which the OS allots CPU time to application for specified time period and then preempts the processing

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

16 bit and 32 bit software
16-Bit and 32-Bit Software
  • 16-bit Windows software
    • Written for Windows 3.x
    • Accesses data 16 bits at a time
    • Each program written so that it should not infringe on resources of other applications running
  • 32-bit software
    • Written for Windows 95 and later

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

an os manages hardware
An OS Manages Hardware
  • Device drivers or BIOS
  • Operating system
  • Application software

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

an os manages hardware continued
An OS Manages Hardware (continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

how an os uses device drivers
How an OS Uses Device Drivers
  • Device drivers are designed to interface with specific hardware devices
  • Usually written for a particular OS and need to be rewritten for use with another
  • OS provides some device drivers
    • Device manufacturer provides others

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

how an os uses device drivers continued
How an OS UsesDevice Drivers (continued)
  • Windows 95 and Windows 98
    • 16-bit real mode device drivers
    • 32-bit protected mode device drivers
  • Windows Me, Windows NT/2000/XP
    • Only 32-bit protected mode device drivers

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

slide47

How an OS UsesDevice Drivers (continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

device drivers under windows 2000 xp
Device Drivers Under Windows 2000/XP
  • Always check hardware compatibility list (HCL) www.microsoft.com/whdc/hcl/search.mspx
  • Check manufacturer’s Web site for updated device drivers
  • It’s best to use the latest driver available

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

device drivers under windows 2000 xp continued
Device Drivers Under Windows 2000/XP (continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

device drivers under windows 9x
Device Drivers Under Windows 9x
  • OS comes with 32-bit device drivers for hundreds of hardware devices
  • Some older hardware may need to use 16-bit real mode device drivers
    • Loaded by entries in Config.sys, Autoexec.bat, and System.ini

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

how an os uses system bios to manage devices
How an OS Uses System BIOS to Manage Devices
  • OS uses the system BIOS to communicate with simple devices
    • Floppy drive
    • Keyboard
    • Hard drive
  • OS can use either system BIOS or a device driver for the hard drive
    • Device driver is faster

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

bios setup
BIOS Setup

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

bios setup continued
BIOS Setup(continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

bios and device drivers use system resources
BIOS and Device Drivers Use System Resources
  • Interrupt request (IRQ) numbers
  • I/O Addresses
  • Memory addresses
  • Direct memory address (DMA) channels

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

bios and device drivers use system resources continued
BIOS and Device Drivers Use System Resources (continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

os tools to examine a system
OS Tools to Examine a System
  • Device Manager
  • System Information
  • Microsoft Diagnostic (MSD)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

device manager
Device Manager
  • Does not exist in Windows NT
  • Windows XP: Start, right-click My Computer, Properties
  • Windows 2000: Right-click My Computer, Properties, Hardware tab, Device Manager
  • Windows 9x: Right-click My Computer, Properties, Device Manager

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

device manager continued
Device Manager(continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

device manager continued1
Device Manager(continued)
  • For more information about a device, right-click the device and check it Properties
  • Can be used to:
    • Update a device driver
    • Enable or disable a device
    • Change system resources assigned to a device
    • Uninstall a device

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

device manager continued2
Device Manager(continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

system information
System Information
  • Similar to Device Manager plus more information, e.g.,
    • BIOS version
    • Directory where the OS is installed
    • How system resources are used
    • Information about device drivers and status
  • To run System Information, click Start, Run, enter MSinfo32.exe, OK

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

system information continued
System Information(continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

microsoft diagnostic msd
Microsoft Diagnostic (MSD)
  • Available only in DOS and Windows 9x
  • Provides information about the system
    • Memory
    • Video
    • Ports
    • Device drivers
  • Click Start, Run, enter MSD.exe, Click OK

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

microsoft diagnostic msd continued
Microsoft Diagnostic (MSD) (continued)

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions

summary
Summary
  • The hardware components of a PC
  • How an OS relates to hardware and software
  • The system resources that hardware and software use for communication

A+ Guide to Software: Managing, Maintaining and Troubleshooting, Third Editions