Journal Entry #1 Write in your JOURNALS Tell me about yourself! What are your interests, hobbies, etc. What is your family like? Friends? Interesting facts? Are you excited/nervous about starting your last year of high school?
William Allen White once said... "I am not afraid of tomorrow for I have seen yesterday and I love today." *What does this quote mean to you? *How is our past, present, and future intertwined? *How does this relate to psychology? Write in your journals, if you have one
Why should we study psychology??? • ....just because it's so fabulous • and Ms. K's favorite subject?
What is "psychology"? • Literally... psych / ology • psyche = the mind • ology = the study of • Definition: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Behavior --> any action that is observable & measurable • Mental process --> dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memories
Quiz Time!!! • CLEAR YOUR DESKS!
Test how you handle anxiety… • What thoughts/emotions helped you deal with the situation? • What thoughts/emotions hindered your ability to deal with the situation? • Steps to overcome anxiety?
Goals Observe Describe Control Explain Predict GOALS of Psych
Mnemonics • Owls • Don’t • Expect • Pink • Cookies • Observe, Describe, Explain, Predict, Control
Important Concepts • Psychology is a social science but has foundations in the natural sciences • Theory --> a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do • Principle --> a rule or law • Research is used to test theories/hypotheses • Animal vs. Humans
What do psychologists do??? • Subfields PROJECT!!! :)
What aspects of human behavior and mental processes would you most like to learn about?
A History of Psych • More than 2000 years ago...Socrates stated, "know thyself" --> introspection • Aristotle : - Peri Psyches - discusses how human behavior is subject to certain rules and laws (pleasure vs. pain) • Ancient Greeks - confusion and bizarre behavior was caused by supernatural forces as punishment • Hippocrates - suggested problems are due to abnormalities in the brain
To float or sink? • The Middle Ages --> agitation and confusion were due to possession by demons • Tests are conducted to determine whether one was possessed
Modern Science...so wait, Earth revolves around the sun? • Thank you Copernicus, Newton, Locke, Lavoisier...
Ideas should be supported by evidence: The 1800s • Wilhelm Wundt - 1st laboratory in Leipzig, Germany (1879) • Wundt/structuralism – the basic element of conscious experience…objective sensations & subjective feelings • William James/functionalism - "stream of consciousness"; adaptive behavior (to environment) • - 1st Psychology textbook
Do Now Review( answer in your notebooks ) • 1. What is psychology? • 2. What are the goals of psychology? • 3. How is psychology related to the natural sciences? • 4. Apply the goals of psychology to the following situation: On Friday, you have your first test in psychology.
Behaviorism • John Watson – focus on behaviors and causes of behaviors NOT the elements of consciousness • B.F. Skinner – What truly affects behavior? REINFORCEMENT! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-RS80DVvrg
Gestalt Psychology • The 1920s - Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler • "shape" or "form" - perception is more than the sum of parts • Context influences interpretation
Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalysis --> emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining behavior • Verbal slips/dream interpretation • Consultations • Psychodynamic thinking --> assumed that most of what exists in an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes
Other important people… • Stanley Hall – pioneered child development; 1st president of APA • Mary Whiton Calkins – 1st female president of the APA • Margaret Floy Washburn – 1st woman to earn a PhD in psychology
Additional questions…. 1. How would one become a psychologist in your subfield? 2. Would they need a Bachelors? Masters? Doctorate? Specialization? Certification? 3. What’s the potential salary of a psychologist in your subfield?
Do Now… • Take a piece of lined paper. Answer the questions below. Write in paragraph form with complete sentences. Use your textbook, if necessary. • It is possible and probable that the work of several different kinds of psychologists have had a direct and/ or indirect impact on your psychology classroom, curriculum and instruction. How is this possible? What kinds of psychologists have had a direct impact? Indirect?
Contemporary Perspectives • Biological • Evolutionary • Cognitive • Humanistic • Psychoanalytic • Learning • Sociocultural
Journal #2 due Friday, September 20 • People always say to "follow your heart" or "follow your gut feeling". • - Have you experienced a situation where you "just knew"? • - What is "intuition"? • - Do you believe in intuition?
Ethics Respond in your NOTEBOOKS… 1. What does it mean to be ethical? 2. How do ethics apply in psychology? 3. What would be considered unethical? 4. How might a psychologist act unethically?
APA’s Ethical Guidelines for Psychologists • Using recognized standards of competence and ethics, psychologists plan research so as to minimize the possibility of misleading results. Any ethical problems are resolved before research is started. The welfare and confidentiality of all participants are to be protected. • Psychologists are responsible for the dignity and welfare of participants. Psychologists are also responsible for all research they perform or is performed by others under their supervision.
Psychologists obey all state and federal laws and regulations as well as professional standards governing research. • Except for anonymous surveys, naturalistic observations, and similar research, psychologists reach an agreement regarding rights and responsibilities of both participants and researchers before research is started.
When consent is required, psychologists obtain a signed, informed consent before starting any research with a participant. • Deception is used only if no better alternative is available. Under no condition is there deception about (negative) aspects that might influence a participant’s willingness to participate. • Other issues covered include sharing and utilizing data, offering inducements, minimizing evasiveness, and providing participants with information about the study.
Confidentiality • Records are private • Exception: to protect the well-being of the client or of other people
Deception • New drug experiments often use placebos • May use deception in the following situations: - when they believe that the benefits of the research outweigh its potential harm - when they believe participants would have been willing to participate if they understood the benefits - when participants receive an explanation of the study after it has occurred
Ethics Assignment • Position Paper: Milgram vs. Murray • Choose one FAMOUS study in psychology. Summarize the study and decide if this study was ethical. • Define what it means to be ethical in psychology. • FULLY describe the study. What was the point? Who was involved? Where? • Discuss the ethical guidelines by the APA. • Why was this study unethical in nature? YOU MUST USE 2 sources other than your textbook. 3 pages. **Make sure information in cited within the paper, and have a thorough bibliography.**
DO NOW:Write down 5 thoughts YOU have when you think of September 11th.
Take a snapshot view of your worldOne that is sedate and sereneYou’re at the top and it’s not a dreamYou look out and everything’s fineAnd in a New York minute you’re spun on a dimeSuddenly you are face to faceWith the limits of Company ambitionAnd the scars of America’s political marketplaceEver close your eyesEver think why?Sit, really think and listenFind a reason for so many to dieNo sign of life, it’s all goneTake a walk in an empty roomMemories come rushing up to loved ones nowSadness is mixed with war and gloom You know it never ceases to amaze you and meThis world where we just existIs absolutely full of maniacs and craziesWho demand protection from a well-produced listYou know I can’t help thinkingThat one day soonWe will all wake upWe will all be on the moonSoaring above the heavensLooking back on what has beenSeeing things we’ve never really seenThinking how it all could have beenIf only the Moon had stayed upIf only the Sun hadn’t wokeIf everyone were late for workThey would have been warned off by the smokeIf Only – Adam Quin If only…
Let the world always remember,That fateful day in September,And the ones who answered duties call,Should be remembered by us all.Who left the comfort of their home,To face perils as yet unknown,An embodiment of goodness on a day,When men's hearts had gone astray.Sons and daughters like me and you,Who never questioned what they had to do,Who by example, were a source of hope,And strength to others who could not cope. Heroes that would not turn their back,With determination that would not crack,Who bound together in their ranks,And asking not a word of thanks. Men who bravely gave their lives,Whose orphaned kids and widowed wives,Can proudly look back on their dad,Who gave this country all they had.Actions taken without regret,Heroisms we shall never forget,The ones who paid the ultimate price,Let's never forget their sacrifice.And never forget the ones no longer here,Who fought for the freedoms we all hold dear,And may their memory never wane,Lest their sacrifices be in vain.Alan W. Jankowski We Shall Never Forget (9-11 Tribute)