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To what extent did Weltpolitik bring Germany together? C aim – to explain the strengths and weaknesses of Weltpolitik and how far it brought Germany togetherB aim – to assess how far Weltpolitik brought Germany together A/A* aim – to assess how far Weltpolitik brought Germany together and it’s wider impacts Using the mark scheme, why is this only in a level 3? What can they add to get into a level 4? Use your Access to History book and Edexcel book to add this improvement.
pp. 36-40 Causes Consequences What was Weltpolitik? Reading completed?
Reading not completed – C • What caused the downfall of Caprivi? Bottom p. 34 Access. • Hohenlohe and Bulow didn’t want to meet the same fate – how did they decide to solve it? • Make a mindmap of what Weltpolitik meant for the using pp. 38-40 Access and pp. 16-18 Edexcel • Navy • Politics • Social Reform • Tariffs • The Budget • Write down one way in which Weltpolitik brought German politics together • Write down one way in which Weltpolitik tore German politics apart • Reading completed – B/A • Use pp. 16-19 Edexcel and pp. 36-40 Access • Skim and scan to make fact files what each of these key figures did for Weltpolitik • Hohenlohe, Bulow, Admiral von Tirpitz, Count Posadowsky-Wehner, Friedrich von Holstein, Johannes von Miquel • Make sure you have included the naval bills on p.38 Access and tariff law bottom p. 17 Edexcel Access in your notes • Split into two • One half needs to underline in pencil everything which shows Weltpolitik brought Germany together politically. Then write a speech as Bulow to give to the Kaiser persuading him that Weltpolitik was working. Include detailed facts and undermine the opposing argument. • One half needs to underline in pencil everything which shows it tore German politics apart. Then write a speech as a member of the SPD to give to the Reichstag to persuade the Reichstag that Weltpolitik wasn’t working. • Deliver your speeches to each other. Take notes on the opposing speeches. • Who has won?
The above pictures both give clues to a key German policy following the resignation of Caprivi. It was called Weltpolitik. As a group can you work out what it means?
The reorganisation of Imperial Germany – 1897 a turning point in Germany Bülow Foreign Minister 1897-1900 Chancellor 1900-9 Admiral von Tirpitz Navy Secretary Wilhelm II Kaiser Fredrich von Holstein Senior offical in the Foreign Office Count Pasadowsky-Wehner Interior Secretary Johannes von Miquel Prussian Finance Minister
Weltpolitik • Following the introduction and ultimate failure of Caprivi’s ‘new course’ the German rulers embarked on a new political theory Weltpolitik which translates as world power for Germany. • Combined with the emergence of new political figures who were sympathetic to the Kaiser’s wish to embark on what he saw as ‘personal rule’, 1897 has been identified as a key turning point in German foreign and domestic policy. • The key principle of Weltpolitik was colonial acquisitions, the establishment of economic spheres of influence and the expansion of naval power to complement the strength of the army. Use the above information to add to your definition of Weltpolitik
One key to the success of Weltpolitik was the expansion of the German navy. The appointment of Tirpitz was key – he was liked by Wilhelm II and also had parliamentary and popular support. The formation of the Navy League (1898) was critical to this expansion – it encouraged German patriotism which led the membership to grow to over a million. On the back of this he was able to push through the Naval Bills with substantial majorities in the Reichstag Use the above information to add to your definition of Weltpolitik
Weltpolitik – a success? • It succeeded where Caprivi had failed because: • Rallied the middle and upper classes behind the Kaiser • The support of the centre party enabled it to secure an effective majority in the Reichstag. • Ordinary people liked it as it was patriotic • It matched the aspirations of the Kaiser.
I am putting the main emphasis on foreign policy ... Only a successful foreign policy can help to reconcile, pacify, rally, unite. Its preconditions are of course, caution, patience, tact, reflection Bülow and the problems of Weltpolitik
Define these key words including historical facts • Weltpolitik • Concentration or Sammlungspolitik • Flottenpolitik
What successful was Weltpolitik?C aim – to explain what problems Weltpolitik had and their impactB aim – to assess how far Weltpolitik was seriously challenged A/A* aim – to assess how successful Weltpolitik really was • What problems can you think of for Weltpolitik? We have come across some already.
The Herero Uprising Background – As expanding the navy and maintaining an empire took their monetary toll, in 1905 Bulow realised the budget had to be balanced. He suggested increasing indirect taxes (taxes on goods) and an inheritance tax. The centre party and social democrats voted against the indirect taxes and the Conservatives against the inheritance tax. The deficit continued to grow. On a positive note, the blue-black block (blue for Conservative and black for the clerical Catholic party) remained a strong alliance and pushed through most other decisions. The SPD never reached the numbers, due to the unfair weighting of voting in Prussia and constituency boundaries which were favourable to the Conservative agriculturalists. In 1904 the Herero people, in Namibia, South West Africa, revolted against the German colonialists. They were defeated at the Battle of Waterberg. They were then subjected to a deliberate policy of genocide through execution, incarceration in concentration camps and forced migration into the waterless Namib Desert. Their population had fallen from 80,000 in 1903 to 15,000 in 1911. The Centre Party were particularly shocked by this event. There were Catholic missionaries in the colonies, which were highlighted by the rising political star Matthias Erzberger. It showed that there was lack of parliamentary accountability for the colonial service and that parliament needed greater financial control of colonial affairs, by 1906 this uprising had cost 456 million marks, which was equivalent to 12 dreadnoughts. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pf131rsz0Gc&safe=active
What successful was Weltpolitik?C aim – to explain what problems Weltpolitik had and their impactB aim – to assess how far Weltpolitik was seriously challenged A/A* aim – to assess how successful Weltpolitik really was • C – What problems has Weltpolitik had so far and how did they impact Germany? • B – To what extent was Weltpolitik challenged in it’s domestic and foreign policies so far? • A/A* - How successful is Weltpolitik so far? Include the challenges to domestic and foreign policies.
Homework – Due Monday 23rd September • Research one of the following events ready to present on it on Tuesday. Use your books and the internet. Make sure it is easy to make notes into the table from the presentation. • Herero Uprising • Hottentot Election • Daily Telegraph Affair • The Zabern Affair • Complete ‘spectrum of significance’ excercise.