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Dialysis: A Thermodynamic Perspective

Dialysis: A Thermodynamic Perspective

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Dialysis: A Thermodynamic Perspective

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  1. Dialysis: A Thermodynamic Perspective Alyssa Chang, Austin Dosch, Meredith Greeson, Carrie Martin, Bobby Palmer

  2. The Kidney History of Dialysis Thermodynamics of Dialysis Chemical potential (μ), Affinity, and Gibbs-Free Energy Osmosis & Osmotic Pressure Entropy Objectives

  3. Introduction: The Kidney Structure Renal Vein and Artery Nephron Cortex Inner and outer Medula Function 1. Removes… nitrogenous wastes toxins 2. Regulates… blood volume blood solute concentrations blood pH

  4. The Filtration Process • The Nephron is responsible for: • 1. Filtration • 2. Secretion • 3. Reabsorption • Urine is formed through the filtration under pressure, active transport, and osmosis red arrow = active transport lavender arrow = diffusion or osmosis

  5. Dialysis Machines History: 1913 Able, Roundtree and Turner use artery of animal 1924 Hass credited for first human dialysis Today dialysis last 4 hours, 3 times a week How it works: Contaminated blood Dialyser clean blood returns to body

  6. Thermodynamic Principles Governing Dialysis Chemical potential (µ), Gibbs Free Energy, and the Affinity of a diffusion process Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure Entropy

  7. Chemical potential (μ) • The chemical “driving force” which causes movement of molecules from an area of higher chemical potential to lower potential (affinity) • Solutions of different chemical potentials will flow across a semi-permeable membrane until their potentials are equal • Chemical potential of a particular solute is dependent on the activity: This equation can be related to the thermodynamics of a dialysis system by: In which the dialysis tubing containing contaminated fluid is passed through a bath containing low fluid concentration and therefore is able to be removed

  8. Chemical potential (μ) • Chemical potential is also known as the molar Gibbs energy • Dialysis operates by keeping the system from reaching equilibrium by adding new buffer solution, so the chemical potentials cannot equilibrate

  9. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure • Osmosis is the flow of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher concentration • There is a certain pressure required to stop this flow; the osmotic pressure given by the van’t Hoff equation: π= [c]RT • Dialysis tubes are permeable to water, so the osmotic gradient as the chemical potential gradient of the system affects the efficiency of the process

  10. Entropy • The affinity of the diffusion reaction is the thermodynamic force • The extent of reaction with respect to time is the thermodynamic flow • These two quantities can be related to the entropy production of the system by the equation: • Therefore, as the diffusion reaction progresses and the affinity decreases, entropy production eventually stops at a point (equilibrium) • In this state, entropy of the system is maximized and the Gibbs free energy is minimized

  11. Entropy

  12. Demonstration: Diffusion Through Dialysis Tubing