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Chapter 16: Vocabulary. 1. Domination 9 . Emerged 2. Scholars 10 . Ingenious 3.Expedition 11.Porcelain 4. Humble 12. Charitable

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Chapter 16 vocabulary
Chapter 16: Vocabulary

1. Domination 9 . Emerged

2. Scholars 10 . Ingenious

3.Expedition 11.Porcelain

4. Humble 12. Charitable

5. Enterprise 13.Circumnavigation

6. Isthmus 14.Monopoly

7. Colony 15. Missionary

8. Persecution

Chapter 16 the age of exploration
Chapter 16: The Age of Exploration

The Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria

Exploration begins into the unknown
Exploration Begins: Into the Unknown

  • God, Glory, and Gold

  • Merchants were looking for ways to expand their trade and wealth.

  • Kings and Queens were looking for power and glory for themselves and their God.

  • Marco Polo and the Crusades helped increase European awareness of the wonders of the East.

Flag of portugal 1385 1481
Flag of Portugal: 1385- 1481

King João I (zhooOW)

Modern flag of portugal 1910 present
Modern Flag of Portugal (1910- Present)

The green symbolizes hope for the future; the red symbolizes the blood of the nation. The Portuguese coat of arms has a white shield, which contains five small blue shields with white dots that represent the 5 Wounds of Christ. Within a red shield the seven small yellow castles represent the seven Moors defeated by Alonso III, surrounded by yellow straps. The five blue small shields represent the five Moorish kings who were defeated by the first King of Portugal, Alonso I.

Old glory
Old Glory

Adopted in 1960 after adding Alaska and Hawaii.

Stars= 50 States unified in the blue corner.

13 stripes= The original 13 colonies fighting against

England (Great Britain).

Created by Robert Heft, who was 17 years old, in Ohio for a school project.

Exploration begins
Exploration Begins

B. Portuguese Exploration

Prince Henry “The Navigator”

  • (1394-1460), 3rd son of King João, and he was the driving force behind Portuguese exploration.

  • Helped in the conquest of the rich Muslim trading city of Ceuta (say OO tah), which is located in North Africa. He was introduced to new things here.

  • In 1419 the taste for wealth had begun. He hired the best European navigators, scientists, mapmakers, and shipbuilders.

  • Made improvements to the compass, astrolabe, and ships.

  • Mid-1400s: Exploration of the African west coast began and European slave trade is a result.

S o crist v o saint christopher man of war under the command of bartolomeu dias
São Cristóvão (Saint Christopher)/ Man-of-War:Under the command of Bartolomeu Dias

Exploration begins1
Exploration Begins

Bartolomeu Dias

a. 1st to sail around the southern tip of Africa in 1488 in search of a trade route to India.

  • He sailed through a terrible storm at the southern tip of Africa and named it the Cape of Storms, which is now called the Cape of Good Hope.

  • Dias never reached India because his crew refused to go any farther (mutiny).

  • In May of 1500, Dias and his crew of four ships encountered storms close to the Cape of Storms on another journey to India. No one would survive.

S o gabriel under the command of vasco da gama
São Gabriel:Under the command of Vasco da Gama

Exploration begins2
Exploration Begins

Vasco da Gama

  • In November of 1497 he set sail around the Cape of Good Hope and into the Indian Ocean.

  • In May of 1498 (6 months) he sailed into the port of Calicut, India, and he was the first European to reach India by sea.

  • The Indian legendary spices helped the Portuguese economy flourish. ( Cinnamon and Pepper).

  • He returned to Portugal with items that were worth 60 times the cost of the expedition.

  • He returned to India in 1502 with a navy to conquer rich port cities. This began European rule in India.

Exploration begins3
Exploration Begins

  • Spanish Exploration

    Christopher Columbus “Admiral of the Ocean Sea”

  • Born in Italy in 1451.

  • Columbus thought that if a sailor sailed far enough to the west, that he would eventually arrive in the lands of the east.

  • He tried to sell this expedition for many years unsuccessfully, but in 1492 he convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to finance the voyage.

  • Many people believed that the Earth was flat and if you sailed west into the horizon you would fall off the world, but scholars knew that the world was round.

Exploration begins4
Exploration Begins

C. Spanish Exploration

Juan Ponce de León

  • Sailed in 1493 with Columbus on his second voyage.

  • Settled on an island that is now named Puerto Rico.

  • King Ferdinand heard rumors of undiscovered islands to the north of Hispaniola and financed León to explore the area.

  • He discovered a new land and named it “La Florida”.

  • Many believe that he was in search of the “Fountain of Youth”, which was thought to possess mystical powers.

Vasco n ez de balboa
Vasco Núñez de Balboa

Exploration begins5
Exploration Begins

C. Spanish Exploration

Vasco Núñez de Balboa

  • He arrived on the Isthmus of Panama in 1511, established the settlement of Santa Maria, and became its Governor.

  • He heard stories about a huge ocean and gold treasure even further to the south and wanted to explore.

  • After a month from Santa Maria he reached the Pacific Ocean, but Balboa named it the South Sea. He claimed all the lands it touched for Spain.

Chapter 16 vocabulary

Death of Balboa

“The 3rd time is the charm”

Exploration begins6
Exploration Begins

Ferdinand Magellan

  • Born in Portugal but sailed under the Spanish crown .

  • In 1519 he set out to finish Columbus’s unfulfilled voyage of reaching Asia by sailing west.

  • Magellan set out on the voyage with 5 ships and 237 men under his command.

  • The voyage was successful when it returned to Spain in 1522, but only one ship returned carrying 18 men.

  • Magellan was killed in the Philippines trying to spread Christianity and establish trade.

  • The first circumnavigation of the globe, the Strait of Magellan bears his name, and he named the Pacific (Peaceful) Ocean.

Europeans in india and southeast asia
Europeans in India and Southeast Asia

Pedro Alvarez Cabral

  • In 1500, Cabral set out for India.

  • He was blown of course and discovered new land for Portugal, which is known today as Brazil and they would rule it for more than 300 years.

  • He reached India and established a trading post in 1501, but he got into a conflict that left many Arabians dead.

Europeans in india and southeast asia1
Europeans in India and Southeast Asia

  • Cabral’s success soon led Portugal to expand further by sending more trade ships and armed forces to Asia.

  • Portugal gained control of many trading centers between the east coast of Africa and the west coast of India. Sometimes this happened by force.

  • Portugal set their eyes on the Moluccas (the Spice Islands/Home of the spice called Cloves), which lies in the northeastern part of modern-day Indonesia.

    Here comes trouble!!!!

Europeans in india and southeast asia2
Europeans in India and Southeast Asia

The rise of the Dutch

  • They are people from Holland, which is now the modern-day Netherlands.

  • During the 1500s, the Dutch were growing into an economic and military power.

  • Portugal was unable to defend its many trading posts against the powerful Dutch.

  • In 1602, the Dutch East India Trading Company was founded in Holland, and it set up a base in modern-day Indonesia.

  • The company had its own armies, which it used to seize land and people to serve its enterprise. A monopoly was created.

Europeans in india and southeast asia3
Europeans in India and Southeast Asia

The English in Asia

  • The East India Company was established in England in 1600 and it led the efforts to establish England in the Indian and Asian trade.

  • The Mughal Empire began to lose control of India in the 1700s.

  • The English began to emerge as the leading power in India and in the mid-1800s, India eventually became a colony of Great Britain.

Europe in east asia
Europe in East Asia

“Foreign Devils” in China

  • Europeans now set their eyes on a valuable prize nearby, which was known as China. This would prove to be very difficult because China viewed themselves as the greatest Empire in the world.

  • Porcelain, Jade, and Silk were the desired items that Europeans wanted to trade for in China.

  • The Portuguese tried to establish trade with China when they were in India, but they were seen by China as nothing more than a bunch of pirates.

  • Trade was strictly controlled and limited by China to everyone. China mainly traded for silver during this time.

Europe in east asia1
Europe in East Asia

“Foreign Devils” in Japan

  • In the 1540s the Portuguese blew off course during a storm and discovered Japan.

  • They returned with traders and missionaries, but by the late 1500s Japanese rulers had began to have enough.

  • Persecution began by the Japanese against the Portuguese and Japanese Christians.

  • In the 1600s the Dutch were allowed to trade with Japan. They built a trading post but their trade was limited and strictly controlled. They were the only Europeans to trade with Japan until the 1800s.

Spanish exploration
Spanish Exploration

Hernando Desoto

  • In 1539 he landed near modern day Tampa, Florida, with 9

    ships and 620 men and animals (Horses, Pigs, Chickens). Bad times coming for the natives!

  • In 1541 he entered into Mississippi and demanded 200

    Chickasaw Indians to go with his expedition as slaves.

    c. They refused and attacked Desoto at night and stole supplies.

    (Could have eliminated him but allowed him to leave).

  • Desoto died of fever near the Arkansas and Louisiana border

    on the western bank of the MS river. His men hid his death

    from the native slaves. (Sun god=stability and peace)

    e. The exploration was a failure: NO gold or silver found.

Chapter 16 vocabulary

God, Glory, and Gold!

North America?

You’re Next!

Chapter 17 vocabulary
Chapter 17 Vocabulary