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Hearing . Audition is caused by vibrations Social relationships ASL= American sign language. Hearing: If a tree falls in the Forest…. How sound waves are produced? How they are sensed? How senses are interpreted?. Objectives= The Student will.

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hearing

Hearing

Audition is caused by vibrations

Social relationships

ASL= American sign language

hearing if a tree falls in the forest
Hearing: If a tree falls in the Forest…
  • How sound waves are produced?
  • How they are sensed?
  • How senses are interpreted?
objectives the student will
Objectives= The Student will
  • Compare and contrast the psyical properties of sound
  • Describe The psychological aspect of hearing
  • Trace and summarize How we hear (4 STEPS)
frequency and amplitude
Frequency and Amplitude
  • Two physical properties of sound waves
  • Frequency- number of vibrations or cycles the wave completes in a given amount of time.
  • Cycles per second (cps) or hertz (Hz).
  • Amplitude- Measure of physical strength of the S.W.
  • Units of sound pressure or energy.
  • For example: Turn down stereo=decreasing amplitude of S.W.
sound waves
Sound Waves
  • Physics of S.W.
what we hear

chapter 6

What we hear

Loudness

The dimension of auditory experience related to the intensity of a pressure wave

Pitch

The dimension of auditory experience related to the frequency of a pressure wave

Timbre

The dimension of auditory experience related to the complexity of a pressure wave

psychological qualities of sound how we distinguish one sound from another ob2
Psychological Qualities of sound: How we Distinguish one sound from another (OB2)
  • Three sensory qualities: Pitch, loudness, timbre.
  • How does the two physical characteristics of sound, (Frequency and amplitude), produce these 3 psychological sensations?
sensations of a pitch
Sensations of a pitch
  • Sound waves frequency determines highness or lowness of sound= Pitch.
  • High frequency=high pitch
  • Low frequency=low pitch
  • Range of human auditory sensitivity 20 cps- 20,000 cps
sensation of loudness
Sensation of loudness
  • Loudness is determined by it’s physical strength or amplitude.
  • Like brightness is determined by intensity of light
  • Measured in decibels ( a unit named after Alexander graham bell) dB
sensations of timbre
Sensations of Timbre
  • Timbre-Complex quality of sound wave.
  • Allows you to recognize voice of friend
  • Sound is not a physical phenomenon; it is a psychological sensation
sensing sounds how we hear sound waves
Sensing Sounds: How we hear Sound Waves
  • Transduced into Neural Impulses for the Brain. Just like vision.
  • Happens in 4 steps.
  • 1st Airborne sound waves must reach the inner ear through auditory canal (outer)
  • Vibrating waves strike ear drum or Tympanic membrane.
  • Cochlea- Primary organ of hearing
hearing cont
Hearing Cont…
  • 2nd step The Cochlea focuses the vibrations on the basilar membrane
  • The airborne sound becomes Seaborne (the cochlea is filled with fluid)
  • Like a submarine sending a ping through the water
  • Causes a sympathetic vibration in the Basilar membrane.
  • B.M.- thin strip of tissue in Cochlea.
hear me know
Hear me know?
  • 3rd step-B.M. converts the vibrations into neural messages.
  • Tiny hair cells on B.M. stimulate sensory nerve endings connected to hair cells
  • Excited Neurons transform into neural activity
4 th step
4th step
  • Finally, the neural messages travel to the Auditory cortex in the brain.
  • Causes a bundle of nerves called auditory nerve.
  • Neurons from the two ears meet at the brain stem, then continue to A.C. for high processing.
  • Remember the auditory cortex lies in the Brain’s temporal lobes.
receptor cells like the retina for heaing
Receptor Cells- LIKE THE RETINA FOR HEAING
  • Cilia- the hair cells, have bristles
  • Organ Of Corti- The actual structure in the cochlea (KOCK-lee-uh) containing hair cells that serve as the receptor cells for hearing
  • Interior of cochlea- A snail shaped, fluid filled organ of Corti, where the receptors for hearing are located
auditory localization

chapter 6

Auditory localization

Sounds from different directions are not identical as they arrive at left and right ears.

Loudness

Timing

Phase

The brain calculates a sound’s location by using these differences.

deafness 2 types
Deafness:2 types
  • Conduction deftness-The ways in which sound waves are converted to nerve energy have been interfered with or are interrupted. (vibrations effected)
  • Nerve deftness-problem with how the impulses from the oval window are sent to the brain. (usually people who are born deaf have this)
summary
Summary
  • How we hear
  • Structure of sound
  • Anatomy of ear