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Tuesday, 12/4 Agenda. Finish Doing Drugs Cyber-Crime, Terrorism Crimes of the Powerful Law Enforcement . Drug Control Strategies . “War on Drugs” = $600 Billion over past 25 years Source Control Interdiction Punishment (Deterrence) Drug Testing Different Approaches

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tuesday 12 4 agenda

Tuesday, 12/4 Agenda

Finish Doing Drugs

Cyber-Crime, Terrorism

Crimes of the Powerful

Law Enforcement

drug control strategies
Drug Control Strategies
  • “War on Drugs” = $600 Billion over past 25 years
    • Source Control
    • Interdiction
    • Punishment (Deterrence)
    • Drug Testing
    • Different Approaches
    • Drug Education (non-D.A.R.E.)
    • Drug Treatment (California’s Prop 36)
    • Public Health-Harm Reduction Models
      • Methadone
drug legalization
Drug Legalization?
  • Pro?
    • Reduce crime by eliminating “drug-defined crimes”
      • Reduce Prison Costs
    • Reduce violence generated by black market
    • Reduce police corruption (?)
  • Con?
    • Increased drug use and social costs
      • Before-After Dorito test
    • Moral costs
  • Practical Problems with Legalization
    • Which drugs? Who sells? Minors?
drug treatment
Drug Treatment
  • As with criminal rehabilitation programs, cognitive behavioral programs have a track record of success
    • Cognitive = skill and restructuring
  • The effect of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous is largely unknown
    • Very resistant to academic research
drug courts
Drug Courts
  • Started in 1989 in Dade County Florida as a reaction to crowded jails/court dockets
    • Spread like wildfire thereafter
  • Key ingredients
    • Team approach
    • Judicial involvement in supervision (court reviews)
    • Strong treatment component
    • Quick processing
drug court ii
Drug Court II
  • Most research has been favorable
    • Reductions in drug use and other criminal activity
  • South St. Louis County (Duluth) MN drug court
    • Reviewed by one of the best bow hunting criminologists in the country
      • Significant reductions in felony offending vs. a comparison group of people arrested for drug felonies prior to the existence of drug court
cyber crime
  • Crime that occurs over the internet using a computer
    • Cyber markets
    • Fraud
    • Development of criminal communities
cyber markets
  • Piracy
    • Software, Music, Movies, Television Broadcasts, Books…
      • Requires minimal skill, but does entail some risks (viruses, lawsuits, etc.)
      • Estimates vary, but roughly 1/3 of Americans report pirating
      • Higher estimates among youth, especially COLLEGE KIDS!
        • UMD STUDENTS = 62% pirated in past year, 20% did so “frequently”
      • Music and video piracy appears to be declining…why?
  • Beyond pirating—use of legitimate (eBay, Craig's list) and illegitimate sites to engage in crime
    • Sell stolen goods, trade in illicit drugs/sex
cyber pornography market
Cyber pornography market
  • Defining “pornography” has always been problematic
  • Other major issues
    • Access by Minors
    • Unwanted solicitation
    • Child pornography
  • Federal legislation has had limited success…
    • Communications Decency act of 1996
    • Child Online Protection Act (COPA) of 1998
    • Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) of 2000
      • Constitutional (Libraries get public funding)
cyber fraud
Cyber Fraud
  • Traditional Fraud Scams
    • A friend from Nigeria wished to transfer a million dollars into your account
  • Phishing and Pharming scams
    • Your Ebay account has been compromised!
  • Hacking
  • Major concern with many of these techniques is identity theft
    • Use your information to take out loans, get credit cards, etc.
identity theft
Identity Theft
  • The unlawful use of another person’s identifying information
    • Use of name, DOB, social security number, credit card number…to commit fraud or other crimes
    • Internet and information age has made this much easier
combating identity theft
Combating Identity Theft
  • State Legislation
    • “Freeze laws” – stops access to credit reports
    • Laws to redact fraudulent transactions from credit reports
    • Disclosure laws—if your info has been compromised
  • New emphasis on information privacy
  • Risk minimization
    • Guard SS# and other private info, look at credit reports, shred sensitive paper, don’t open suspicious email…
cybercrime communities
Cybercrime Communities
  • Anonymity of cyberspace
    • Deviant Subcultures have arena to share information and engage in crime
      • Child Pornography
      • Drug Distribution
  • Definitions Vary Widely
    • The use of violence to influence the political, social, or religious attitudes and/or behaviors of others
    • Premeditated, politically motivated violence, designed to spread fear and perpetrated against civilians
start data
  • National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism
    • University of Maryland
      • Convergence of several databases + new additions from media
    • What qualifies:
      • Intend to coerce/intimidate/convey message beyond immediate victims
      • Aimed at attaining political/social/religious goal
      • Context outside of legitimate warfare
    • Almost 100,000 terrorist incidents between 1970 and 2010
      • 43,000 bombings, 14,000 assassinations, and 4,700 kidnappings

Interactive Chart

thinking about terrorism
Thinking about Terrorism
  • Political/Secular vs. Religious
  • Organization and Support
  • Domestic Terrorism
  • Response to Terrorism
political vs secular
Political vs. Secular
  • Motivations of terrorists
    • Those with political agenda may be more selective regarding civilian casualties
      • Logic = the non-believers are all enemies
  • HOWEVER, it is sometimes difficult to separate the religious from the secular
      • Osama Bin Laden and the 9/11 attacks had both a religious and political/secular component
terrorist cells
Terrorist “Cells”
  • Cell Structure
    • Chain of command at the top (hierarchy), but operation in smaller, tightly kit “cells”
      • Cells independent of each other, somewhat autonomous
      • Cells have limited or no contact with leaders of terror group
    • Long history of use
      • Irish Republican Army
types of terrorism
Types of Terrorism
  • Domestic terrorism
    • U.S.
      • Left Wing (Weathermen, Eco-Terrorism)
      • Right Wing (Militias, Timothy McVeigh)
  • State terrorism
    • Against domestic or foreign “enemies”
      • German atrocities against Jews circa WWII
      • Assassination of foreign leaders
  • International terrorism
    • Al-Qaeda
terrorism and the media
Terrorism and the Media
  • Scholars have pointed out that there is a natural match
    • Terrorists depend on media
      • Use event to coerce larger audience: high visibility targets, graphic acts, pre-event contact with media outlets, post-event videos
    • Media as a natural venue for terrorism
      • Dramatic, violent, visual, timely (vs. wars which are protracted, highly complex…)
response to terrorism
Response to Terrorism
  • Difficult balance
    • Aggressive response  detection, deterrence
    • Concern  civil rights, overreaching
  • Examples
    • USA Patriot Act
      • Warrantless search and seizures, wiretapping, etc.
    • Global War on Terror
      • Interrogation techniques, use of drones to assassinate, etc.
crimes of the powerful
Crimes of the Powerful
  • Organized Crime
  • White Collar Crime
    • Occupational Crime
    • Corporate Crime
organized crime
Organized Crime
  • Criminal activity committed by groups with some manner of formalized structure
    • Primary goal is typically money and power
  • Some ambiguity here
    • Street gangs versus drug cartels
    • Terrorist groups
just how organized is it
Just how organized is it?
  • The Alien Conspiracy Model (foreign criminals)
    • Highly organized and centralized
    • Sicilian “Mafia” (La Cosa Nostra) as poster child
      • Mafia code (loyalty, respect, discipline), secret oaths, traditions, etc
  • Local, ethnic group model
    • Strong family ties and obligations related to kinship and ethnicity
      • Distrust of outsiders and government
      • Capacity for organization and cooperation among groups
      • Ability to cultivate good will of local residents
    • Influence limited to cities/geographical areas
crimes of the organized
Crimes of the organized
  • Illegal Industries
    • Gambling, narcotics distribution, loan sharking, extortion, insurance scams, fencing…
    • Violence associated with enforcement
  • Legitimate industry
    • Used to launder money + create monopolies + extort
      • Restaurants/food, garbage disposal, garment manufacturing, labor unions, construction…
  • Political
    • Bribery, fixing elections, coercing agents of criminal justice, etc.
the mafia
The Mafia
  • Mafia is often used as general term
    • Usually refers to Italian Americans (Sicilian)
    • La Cosa Nostra (“our thing” in Italian)
      • Fodder for entertainment media (Sopranos, The Godfather, Goodfellas)
      • Famous New York crime families (Gambino, Genovese)
      • Joseph Valachi testimony (1963) before the Senate
        • The organization and crime families do exist, but the level of organization often exaggerated
    • Does “stand apart” because of its pervasiveness, control over illegitimate markets, and penetration into legitimate industry
law enforcement methods
Law Enforcement Methods
  • Headhunting
    • Target heads of organized crime families, use informants + surveillance to indict
    • Successful?
      • Fairly successful at knocking off “heads” but still organized crime
  • Organized Crime Control Act (1970)
    • Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Statutes
    • Prosecutor ability to provide witness protection
white collar crime
White Collar Crime
  • Edwin Sutherland
    • “A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation”
      • Urged criminologists to focus on crimes of the upper class, as opposed to street crime (still an issue today)
      • What is “counted” counts
        • Sutherland’s study of 70 largest corporations: official records revealed over 980 law violations (fraud, bribery, antitrust)
          • Much “War Profiteering”
      • A BIT better with NIBRS data, but nowhere near as good as “street crime” data
more recent typology of wcc
More recent typology of WCC
  • Occupational Crime
    • Crimes committed by individuals in the course of their occupation for personal gain
      • Theft/embezzlement, medical fraud by physicians, therapist having sex with client…
  • Corporate or Organizational Crime
    • Crimes committed by corporations (and their executives) for the benefit of the corporation
      • Organizations include small business and blue collar endeavors (auto repair shops)
occupational crimes
Occupational Crimes
  • Employee embezzlement and pilferage
    • Collective embezzlement
      • Savings and Loans crime wave in the 1980s (land flips)
  • Professional Fraud
    • Lawyers, Physicians
      • How many hours to bill clients
      • Unnecessary procedures and surgeries, Medicaid/Medicare fraud
organizational crime
Organizational Crime
  • Many organizational crimes are “blue collar”
    • Auto repair, appliance repair
      • 20/20 and 60 minutes stings
    • Fraudulent businesses (roofing, blacktop)
    • Small businesses
corporate crime
Corporate Crime
  • Fraud, Cheating, Corruption
    • The Enron Scandal
      • Not alone—the most egregious of the 1990s/2000s era
        • Halliburton, WorldCom, Rite Aid, Adelphia…
      • Enron = cooking books to artificially inflate the value of their stocks (overstate earnings, hide losses), manipulation of California’s energy market to drive up costs
        • Accounting firm (Arthur Anderson) complicit the fraud
        • 31 people indicted (Jeff Skilling, Ken Lay)
    • The “Great Recession”?
      • Housing bubble (mortgage industry) + mortgage backed securities + bailout…
corporate crime ii
Corporate Crime II
  • Other financial
    • Price Fixing / Collusion (gas prices)
    • False advertising (bait and switch)
  • Corporate Violence
    • Unsafe work conditions (miners, asbestos)
    • Unsafe products (contaminated food)
    • Pollution
cost of wcc
Cost of WCC
  • Cost MUCH higher than street crime
    • $17 billion vs. roughly $400 billion
    • 16,000 homicides vs. 100,000 unnecessary deaths
what causes wcc
What causes WCC?
  • Lenience?
    • Double standard embedded in culture—not “real” criminals
      • Weak/absent regulations –rely on “ethics” and self-regulation
      • Difficulty in proving crime (complex, good lawyers, lack resources to prosecute)
        • SEC  over 10 years, 600 cases referred for prosecution, and less than 1/3 resulted in convictions with less than 1/6 resulting in jail or prison time
      • Weak punishment  civil settlements with no admission of wrongdoing
        • Fines often less than 1% of corporate PROFITS for a year
  • Conservatives cry out for punishment for street crimes, but believe that much corporate “crime” can be cured by self-regulation
  • Liberals decry harsh punishment, especially for non-violent offenders, but believe that WCC could be reduced greatly through prison time
    • Corporations more “rational” than individuals?
psycho corporations
Psycho Corporations
  • Psychopaths:
    • Insensitive, Manipulative, Superficial charm, Above-average intelligence, Absence of psychotic symptoms, Absence of anxiety, Lack of remorse, Failure to learn from experience, Egocentric, Lack of emotional depth
    • Corporations are not supposed to be compassionate or think of long-term consequences