Kingdom Archaebacteria & Kingdom Eubacteria Unit 2 - Biodiversity
Bacteria – Prokaryotic Organisms • Both kingdoms (Eubacteria and Archaebacteria) were once collectively known as Kingdom Monera. • Prokaryotic • Means that it doesn’t have a nucleus. A nucleus holds all of a cells DNA, so the DNA in a bacteria cell is just “stuffed” inside the cell, along with free floating ribosomes (which help make proteins and have RNA). • Reproduces by binary fission • Since the cell’s DNA is not concentrated in one area all the bacteria cell has to do is double it’s genetic material, and split in half.
Bacteria – Single Celled Organisms • All bacteria cells are unicellular. All thecharacteristics of life occur in one cell. • If lots of cells divide and live in one area (usually cultured on agar) it is called a colony.
Kingdom Archaebacteria • Differ from Eubacteria in the fact that their RNA (found in ribosomes) is arranged differently and cell walls are different. • They are mostly anaerobic (don’t need oxygen) • Are found in very harsh environments • Very salty, acidic and hot places. • Volcanic Vents, Hot springs, bottom of the ocean. • Thought to be the oldest living organisms on Earth. • It is believed that Earth’s atmosphere began as a mixture of poisonous gases, where only this type of organism could have survived.
Kingdom Eubacteria • Most common bacteria. Found everywhere • All known pathogens (the bacteria that makes you sick) are in K. Eubacteria • Also all the good for you bacteria (like in yogurt). • Examples include: • Streptococcus • Clostridiumtetani • Clostridiumbotulinum • Lactobacillus
Pictures – Look alike to me??? I can see why they were once grouped together Archaebacteria Eubacteria
Naming Bacteria – What’s your shape? • Often bacteria is named for it’s shape and arrangement. • Shapes (most common) • Coccus (sphere shaped) • Bacillus (rod shaped) • Sprillium (spiral shaped) • Arrangements (most common) • Strepto (chain) • Staphylo (cluster) • Diplo (pair)
Bacteria and you – Pros & Cons Positive Contributions Negative Aspects • Decomposers • “Fix” nitrogen into a useable form • Food production—yogurt, cheese, etc. • Sewage Treatment • Clean Oil Spills • Source of antibiotics • Disease • Syphilis, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, strep throat, botulism, etc. • Food Spoilage • Resistance to drugs.