Kingdom Eubacteria - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kingdom Eubacteria

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  1. Kingdom Eubacteria

  2. Kingdom Eubacteria • Unicellular (single-cell) • Prokaryotes (no membrane-bound organelles) • Cell Walls contain peptidoglycan, not cellulose • First appeared approximately 3.7 BYA

  3. Nutrition • Autotrophs- manufacture organic compounds • Photoautotrophs- use light energy & CO2 • Chemoautotrophs-use inorganic substances like H2S, NH3, and other nitrogen compounds • Heterotrophs- obtain energy by consuming organic compounds • parasites- get energy from living organisms • saprobes (saprophytes)- get energy from dead, decaying matter; also called decomposers

  4. Heterotroph Ingestion & Digestion • Bacteria cells digest foods by releasing enzymes (which are usually poisonous) outside the cells and into their food. This is called Extra-cellular digestion. • The digested foods are then absorbed by diffusion or active transport.

  5. Oxygen Preferences • obligate aerobes must have oxygen • obligate anaerobes cannot live in oxygen • facultative anaerobes can grow with or without oxygen

  6. Characteristics used for Classification: • RNA sequences and structure • type of nutrition • ability to produce endospores- resistant structures with cytoplasm and DNA • method of movement • shape, and the way the cells are grouped • composition of cell wall and it’s ability to absorb stain

  7. General Characteristics • are found almost everywhere • are often pathogenic (they make us sick!) • are divided into groups according to: • their shape • grouping • cell wall • ability to absorb stains

  8. Shapes • Coccus = spherical (coccus came from the Greek word for berries!) • Bacillus = rod-shaped • Spirilla = spiral-shaped

  9. Grouping • Diplo- Pairs • Streptos- Chains • Staphylo- Clusters http://genome.microbio.uab.edu/strep/info/strep5.gif http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/00520/gallery/thumbnails/thumb_diplococcus.jpg

  10. Examples of Spherical-shaped cells Coccus (sng) , cocci (pl)

  11. A Group of Two is referred to as: Diplo…….. This is diplococccus

  12. A Cluster of cells is referred to as: Staphylo…. This is Staphylococcus

  13. What a slide of Typical coccus looks like in a microscope.

  14. Coccus http://www.uleth.ca/bio/bio1010/Coccus1.jpg

  15. Streptococcus aurelius

  16. Strep Throat

  17. Staph Infection

  18. Rod-shaped cells Bacillus (sng) , Bacilli (pl)

  19. Typical Bacillus

  20. Bacillus http://er1.org/docs/photos/Anthrax/bacillus%20anthracis%20-03.jpg

  21. Typical Bacillus in a Microscope

  22. Spiral-shaped cells Spirillum (sng) , Spirlli (pl)

  23. Spirochetes

  24. Gram Stain • A staining method to differentiate bacteria • Gram-negative refers to the inability to retain the deep violet dye • Gram-positive refers to the ability to retain the deep violet dye

  25. Gram Staining

  26. Gram Negative cells Gram Positive Cells

  27. Bacterial Diseases • Anthrax • Botulism • Lyme Disease • Salmonella • Tetanus • Tooth decay • Tuberculosis

  28. Bacteria Photos Clostridium perfringes Anthrax

  29. Bacteria Photos E. coli Clostridium tetani

  30. Bacteria Photos Neisseria gonorrhoeae Staphylococcus aureus

  31. Bacteria Photos Strep

  32. Cyanobacteria • are photosynthetic autotrophs that produce carbohydrates and oxygen • tend to cling together in chains or colonies • contain enzymes that allow them to “fix” atmospheric nitrogen

  33. http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7/graphics/mader07b/online_vrl/images/0510l.jpghttp://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderbiology7/graphics/mader07b/online_vrl/images/0510l.jpg

  34. Filamentous: Chain of cells http://www.spea.indiana.edu/joneswi/e455/Anabaena.jpg

  35. Oscillatoria http://botit.botany.wisc.edu:16080/images/130/Bacteria/Cyanobacteria/Oscillatoria/Oscillatoria_MC.jpg

  36. Anabaena _ http://www.bio.mtu.edu/~jkoyadom/algae_webpage/ALGAL_IMAGES/cyanobacteria/Anabaena_jason_dbtow17 2016.jpg

  37. Some filamentous cyanobacteria have Heterocysts, which are Nitrogen-fixing structures http://www.people.vcu.edu/~elhaij/IntroBioinf/Scenarios/heterocyst2.JPG

  38. The role of bacteria in the Nitrogen cycle

  39. Nitrogen-fixation • some soil bacteria live in the ground and take in Nitrogen from the surroundings. • the Nitrogen is combined with oxygen to form nitrites and nitrates. Plants use the nitrates and nitrites to make proteins.

  40. Denitrification • some soil bacteria break down the nitrogen compounds and release the nitrogen back into the environment. • plants could not live without Nitrogen-fixing and Denitrifying bacteria.

  41. Asexual Reproduction • Binary Fission – cells grow in size the split in two…. Genetically identical

  42. Sexual Reproduction (exchanging DNA)Conjugation • two bacteria join together and exchange portions of DNA

  43. Transformation DNA is taken in by a bacterium, and then used.

  44. Transduction DNA is transferred to a bacterium by a virus.

  45. Endospores • When environmental factors become harsh bacteria will either die or form endospores. • If bacteria have time, if the environmental changes are slow enough, they usually form endospores.

  46. Examples of Symbiotic Relationships • Mutualism – E. coli in the intestines of mammals aid in digestion. • Parasitism – some bacteria are parasites. They live in a host and eventually overpopulate. As they do they use the host’s food and water, and eventually they starve the tissues.

  47. Beneficial Uses/Effects • chemical recyclers (Nitrogen Cycle) • the production of HGH, Insulin, Etc., through Genetic Engineering • oil spill cleanup • synthesis of Vitamins in your intestines