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Kingdom Eubacteria. Kingdom Eubacteria. Unicellular (single-cell) Prokaryotes (no membrane-bound organelles) Cell Walls contain peptidoglycan, not cellulose First appeared approximately 3.7 BYA. Nutrition. Autotrophs- manufacture organic compounds

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kingdom eubacteria2
Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Unicellular (single-cell)
  • Prokaryotes (no membrane-bound organelles)
  • Cell Walls contain peptidoglycan, not cellulose
  • First appeared approximately 3.7 BYA
  • Autotrophs- manufacture organic compounds
    • Photoautotrophs- use light energy & CO2
    • Chemoautotrophs-use inorganic substances like H2S, NH3, and other nitrogen compounds
  • Heterotrophs- obtain energy by consuming organic compounds
    • parasites- get energy from living organisms
    • saprobes (saprophytes)- get energy from dead, decaying matter; also called decomposers
heterotroph ingestion digestion
Heterotroph Ingestion & Digestion
  • Bacteria cells digest foods by releasing enzymes (which are usually poisonous) outside the cells and into their food. This is called Extra-cellular digestion.
  • The digested foods are then absorbed by diffusion or active transport.
oxygen preferences
Oxygen Preferences
  • obligate aerobes must have oxygen
  • obligate anaerobes cannot live in oxygen
  • facultative anaerobes can grow with or without oxygen
characteristics used for classification
Characteristics used for Classification:
  • RNA sequences and structure
  • type of nutrition
  • ability to produce endospores- resistant structures with cytoplasm and DNA
  • method of movement
  • shape, and the way the cells are grouped
  • composition of cell wall and it’s ability to absorb stain
general characteristics
General Characteristics
  • are found almost everywhere
  • are often pathogenic (they make us sick!)
  • are divided into groups according to:
    • their shape
    • grouping
    • cell wall
    • ability to absorb stains
  • Coccus = spherical (coccus came from the Greek word for berries!)
  • Bacillus = rod-shaped
  • Spirilla = spiral-shaped
  • Diplo- Pairs
  • Streptos- Chains
  • Staphylo- Clusters



gram stain
Gram Stain
  • A staining method to differentiate bacteria
  • Gram-negative refers to the inability to retain the deep violet dye
  • Gram-positive refers to the ability to retain the deep violet dye

Gram Negative cells

Gram Positive Cells

bacterial diseases
Bacterial Diseases
  • Anthrax
  • Botulism
  • Lyme Disease
  • Salmonella
  • Tetanus
  • Tooth decay
  • Tuberculosis
bacteria photos
Bacteria Photos

Clostridium perfringes


bacteria photos29
Bacteria Photos

E. coli

Clostridium tetani

bacteria photos30
Bacteria Photos

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Staphylococcus aureus

  • are photosynthetic autotrophs that produce carbohydrates and oxygen
  • tend to cling together in chains or colonies
  • contain enzymes that allow them to “fix” atmospheric nitrogen

filamentous chain of cells
Filamentous: Chain of cells



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some filamentous cyanobacteria have heterocysts which are nitrogen fixing structures
Some filamentous cyanobacteria have Heterocysts, which are Nitrogen-fixing structures

nitrogen fixation
  • some soil bacteria live in the ground and take in Nitrogen from the surroundings.
  • the Nitrogen is combined with oxygen to form nitrites and nitrates. Plants use the nitrates and nitrites to make proteins.
  • some soil bacteria break down the nitrogen compounds and release the nitrogen back into the environment.
  • plants could not live without Nitrogen-fixing and Denitrifying bacteria.
asexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
  • Binary Fission – cells grow in size the split in two…. Genetically identical
sexual reproduction exchanging dna conjugation
Sexual Reproduction (exchanging DNA)Conjugation
  • two bacteria join together and exchange portions of DNA

DNA is taken in by a bacterium, and then used.


DNA is transferred to a bacterium by a virus.

  • When environmental factors become harsh bacteria will either die or form endospores.
  • If bacteria have time, if the environmental changes are slow enough, they usually form endospores.
examples of symbiotic relationships
Examples of Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mutualism – E. coli in the intestines of mammals aid in digestion.
  • Parasitism – some bacteria are parasites. They live in a host and eventually overpopulate. As they do they use the host’s food and water, and eventually they starve the tissues.
beneficial uses effects
Beneficial Uses/Effects
  • chemical recyclers (Nitrogen Cycle)
  • the production of HGH, Insulin, Etc., through Genetic Engineering
  • oil spill cleanup
  • synthesis of Vitamins in your intestines