Kingdom Plantae • Evidence suggests that plants evolved from the Kingdom Eubacteria, specifically the algae. • Scientists believe this because: • Each has the same type of chlorophyll. • Each have cellulose in their cell walls. • Each produce starch as a food source.
Plant Divisions There are two major divisions into which plants can be grouped: 1)Non-vascular plants 2) Vascular Plants Vascularization refers to the presence of tissues that are capable of moving water and therefore nutrients throughout the plant.
Non-vascular Plants Example: *Sphagnum Moss • See overhead of life cycle which has been expertly drawn by Mr. MacQuarrie.
The Move to Dry Land There are three main adaptations that permitted the move from wet or watery habitats to dry land. 1) Stoma – a structure located on the underneath of plant leaves which supply a way for the passage of O2 and CO2 plural = stomata 2) A waxy cuticle – prevents water loss in stems and leaves. 3) Vascular tissues
Vascular Plants Vascular plants are further broken down into two groups: 1) Seedless plants 2) Seed bearing plants
Seedless Plants Include horsetails and ferns. These plants generate spores rather than seeds.
Seed Bearing Plants Divided into two groups: 1) Plants that have seeds enclosed in a fruit. (Angiosperms) 2) Plants that have seeds which are not enclosed in a fruit. (Gymnosperms)
Gymnosperms Include those plants that reproduce using cones. Referred to as conifers. Male cones generate pollen which are carried through the air and fertilize the egg found on female cones, forming a seed. Once the female cone matures the seed detaches and floats through the air to become a new tree.
Angiosperms The reproductive parts for these plants is included within a flower rather than a cone. The mature seeds are usually housed inside of a fruit.