The Behaviourist Approach. Key assumptions. Starter - Key Assumptions. Read the quote from John Watson What does this suggest about the behaviourist approach?. The role of the environment. Tabula Rasa Literally means “Blank Slate”
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The Behaviourist Approach Key assumptions
Starter - Key Assumptions • Read the quote from John Watson • What does this suggest about the behaviourist approach?
The role of the environment • Tabula Rasa • Literally means “Blank Slate” • We are born “blank” and it is our environment which shapes us. • Environmental determinism • All that we are is because of our environment. Our personalities and behaviour is determined by our environment
The importance of observable events in research • This approach is primarily concerned with observable behaviour (measurable behaviour) • Behaviourists don’t believe in studying thoughts, emotions and similar things which cannot be measured.
The importance of observable events in research • Behaviourists believe that the behaviour of people and animals (as they assume that there is little difference between people and other animals) is the result of stimulus-response relationships. • E.g.: you burn your hand on a stove, and therefore do not touch the stove again.
Common principles in learning • Read the section on page 22-23 and match the term to the definition
Classical Conditioning • This is learning through ASSOCIATION • To remember this think ASS! • clASSical conditioning • ASSociation
Classical Conditioning • Does anyone have a dog or a cat? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpoLxEN54ho
Classical Conditioning • Before conditioning UCS UCR (Food) (Salivation) NS No Response (Metronome)
Classical Conditioning • During conditioning UCS NS UCR (Food) (Metronome) (Salivation) • After conditioning CS CR (Metronome) (Salivation)
Classical Conditioning • Explain: • “You eat a banana and shortly afterwards you are sick. You are sick not because of the banana, but because you have a stomach bug; however, from now on the smell and taste of bananas makes you feel nauseous.”
Little Albert • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE • Read pages 24-25 and fill in the gaps. • Using the equation, explain the conditioning that occurred in the Little Albert Experiment
Operant Conditioning • Operant conditioning is learning through consequence • It focuses on reward and punishment. • Have you been rewarded or punished this week?
Operant Conditioning • Read the section on page 25-5, and insert the key terms with the definition, and give an example. • If you find it a bit confusing trying to remember all of the terms, just remember the following • Reinforcement increases behaviour • Punishment decreases behaviour • Positive is where something is given • Negative is where something is taken away
Operant Conditioning • Can pigeons read? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA&feature=related • Or play ping pong? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGazyH6fQQ4
Operant Conditioning • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z8nL-Bv2oqc • In your own words, describe how in the video above, operant conditioning has been used to train the Guinea pig. • Use the correct terms. • Read the scenarios and state what type of conditioning it is.