the behaviourist perspective n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Behaviourist Perspective PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Behaviourist Perspective

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17
zagiri

The Behaviourist Perspective - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

154 Views
Download Presentation
The Behaviourist Perspective
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. TheBehaviouristPerspective • This perspective seeks to understand human behaviour in terms of what has been learnt. • They study behaviour. • They assume that all human behaviour is a result of what has been learnt, eg shyness or aggression. • They think ALL behaviour is a result of either Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)or Operant Conditioning (Skinner).

  2. Classical Conditioning • Pavlov recognised that when a dog was given food it salivated which is a physiological response. • He then rang a bell at the same time as feeding the dogs. • He then realised that after a while, if you rang a bell the dog would salivate WITHOUT any food present. • The dog has been conditioned to salivate when a bell rings.

  3. 1. Before Conditioning 2. Before Conditioning Response Response Response Response Salivation No Salivation Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus No Conditioned Response 3. During Conditioning 4. After Conditioning + Salivation Salivation Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Unconditioned Response US + CS

  4. 1. Before Conditioning 2. Before Conditioning Response Response Response Response Salivation No Salivation Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus No Conditioned Response 3. During Conditioning 4. After Conditioning + Salivation Salivation Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Unconditioned Response US + CS

  5. Classical Conditioning Ringing Bell • Classical conditioning explains LEARNED responses to neutral stimuli. • The bell was the neutral stimulus because normally a bell does not make dogs salivate, but the dogs learned that when a bell rang they would get food and so they salivated when they heard the bell. Equals Salivating Dog

  6. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned Stimulus (US): A naturally occurring event in the environment which provokes a response eg a door banging or the smell of food • Unconditioned Response (UR): Your instinctive response to something that happens eg you jump when a door bangs loudly, or you salivate when given food. • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A new, neutral stimulus that has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus.eg the bell in Pavlov’s experiment is the conditioned stimulus and is paired with the food. • Conditioned Response (CR): A learnt response to the new conditioned stimuluseg salivating when the bell rings in Pavlov’s experiment

  7. Classical Conditioning Do you suffer from Aichmophobia? Read handout PP01 and in small groups discuss: 1. How classical conditioning can be used to cure a phobia of needles? 2. How classical conditioning can be used to cause a fear of needs? Don’t forget to include the US, UR, CS and CR

  8. Operant Conditioning Skinner was an American psychologist who studied animals to discover how they learn new behaviours. A Skinner Box

  9. Operant Conditioning Lever Speaker Signal Lights Rat To Food Dispenser Food Pellet Electric Grid The box contains a lever which, when pressed, caused things to happen. Skinner wanted to see if the rat could learn the behaviour of pressing the lever.

  10. Operant ConditioningHow a rat learns to press a lever • The rat in the Skinner Box accidentally presses the lever and food is released. • When the rat has accidentally hit the lever many times, it learns that:Pressing the lever = food pellet • The food pellet is experienced as REINFORCING (something the rat would like to have more of). • The rat repeats the behaviour of pressing the lever to receive more food pellets.

  11. Operant ConditioningPositive Reinforcement When behaviour causes something pleasurable this is called positive reinforcement. Eg when the rat hit the lever it received a food pellet which was positive reinforcement of that behaviour. This woman’s boyfriend told her he LOVED this outfit. He gave her LOTS of attention and kisseswhen she wore it which was pleasurable. She therefore wore it again, and again and again! She was positively reinforced to wear the outfit. Give an example of when you have been positively reinforced. What do you think of this outfit?

  12. Operant ConditioningNegative Reinforcement • When behaviour removes something unpleasant this is called negative reinforcement. • Eg Skinner changed the box to have a small electric current that could be stopped when the lever was pressed. • The rat learnt that pressing the lever would stop the current. • So, pressing the lever REMOVED the electrocution. • The rat was negatively reinforced to press the lever. Rat Lever Electric Grid

  13. Operant ConditioningNegative Reinforcement A mum uses the ‘naughty step’ when her 4 year old boy is ‘naughty’. He is only allowed to leave the naughty step when he has said sorry for his behaviour. The child has a tantrum and refuses to say sorry. He is not allowed to leave the naughty step until he has calmed down and said sorry. The child eventually calms down and says sorry. Every time the child is on the naughty step he is not allowed to leave until he is calm and said sorry. After a few weeks the child learns that he can remove the unpleasantness of the naughty step by displaying behaviour that his mum approves of (saying sorry and being calm.) Have you been negatively reinforced?

  14. I’m not pressing that lever again! Lever Operant ConditioningPunishment When behaviour causes something that is unpleasant and horrible, this is called punishment.Skinner changed the box to give an electric shock when the lever was pressed. The rats learnt that pressing the lever caused an electric shock which was unpleasant and horrible. Through punishment, the rats learnt not to press the lever.

  15. Paranoia Operant ConditioningPunishment Lauren is 17 and has started smoking cannabis with her friends. Her friends enjoy it and it makes them feel happy. Lauren finds that when she smokes cannabis it makes her paranoidand she is scared and feels horrible inside. The paranoia is punishment of the cannabis smoking behaviour and so Lauren stops the behaviour. Have you been reinforced through punishment?

  16. Operant Conditioning – Group Work • A nurseryGive examples of when it would be appropriate to use positive, negative and punishment reinforcements. Give examples of how you would do this. • A foster homeExplain how you would use operant conditioning to work with a 12 year old child in a foster home who was displaying aggressive and violent behaviour towards other children in the home. • A residential care homeExplain how you would use operant conditioning to work with an 89 year old in a residential care home who was displaying aggressive and violent behaviour towards staff.

  17. The Behaviourist Perspective • In small groups discuss how useful you think the behaviourist perspective is in explaining human behaviour. • Discuss the criticisms of Pavlov and Skinner’s experiments in explaining human behaviour. Discuss the limitations of the behaviourist perspective.