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The Sociohistorical Approach. Founder of the Approach L. S. VYGOTSKY 1896 – 1934 . Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. Vygotsky. QUESTION: WHAT SEPARATES US FROM OTHER ANIMALS?. Vygotsky. EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND OTHER DISTINCTIONS: kinds of spontaneous cultural

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the sociohistorical approach
The Sociohistorical Approach

Founder of the Approach

L. S. VYGOTSKY

  • 1896 – 1934
vygotsky
Vygotsky

QUESTION:

WHAT SEPARATES US FROM OTHER ANIMALS?

vygotsky4
Vygotsky

EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND OTHER DISTINCTIONS:

kinds of spontaneous cultural

knowledge commonsense societal natural

sources of direct experience mediated

knowledge immediate

conscious no yes

reflective

direction bottom up top down

of dev inductive deductive

data driven theory driven

vygotsky5
Vygotsky

TEMPERATURE TASKS

spontaneous cultural

Are these data good for Vygotsky? Bad for Vygotsky? Neutral for Vygotsky?

slide6

WHAT DEVELOPS?

INDIVIDUAL LEVEL

WORD MEANINGS

CULTURAL LEVEL

WORLD VIEWS

SPURRED ON BY

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES (PRINTING

MACHINE, COMPUTERS)

slide7

MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT

SOCIAL INTERACTION

SMALL “S”

CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN PEOPLE

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

LARGE “S”

SOCIETAL TECHNOLOGIES AS CONCEPTS

CALENDAR AS AN EXAMPLE

dan sperber9
Dan Sperber
  • Cultural Evolution and Epidemiology
slide10

COMPARISON OF ROLE OF SOCIAL INTERACTION:

VYGOTSKY’S THEORY AND PIAGET’S

PIAGET

SOCIAL INTERACTION CAN PRODUCE

DISEQUILIBRIUM

PLACE OF CULTURE AND SOCIAL INTERACTION

QUITE NEGLIGIBLE

vygotsky11
VYGOTSKY
  • METAPHORS: ACQUISITION AND PARTICIPATION (SFARD)
  • VYGOTSKY IS PARTICIPATION
  • PIAGET IS ACQUISITION
vygotsky12
VYGOTSKY

ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT

SPATIAL METAPHOR

DISTANCE BETWEEN ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL KNOWLEDGE

X potential knowledge

ZPD X potential

ZPD

X actual knowledge X actual

Two children with the same actual knowledge travel different distances to their potential knowledge; therefore different ZPDs

vygotsky13
VYGOTSKY
  • DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT
  • CONVENTIONAL:
    • TEACH – LEARN – TEST
  • VYGOTSKY:
    • TEST/TEACH/LEARN
vygotsky14
VYGOTSKY
  • SCAFFOLDING
    • EXAMPLE: MY USING ADVANCED ORGANIZERS IN CLASS, SUCH AS THE DEEP STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND MAP OF THE FIELD
vygotsky15
VYGOTSKY
  • RELATIONS BETWEEN LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT
  • FORMER GOES BEYOND LATTER
    • TEACHING WITH SCAFFOLDING CAUSES LEARNING
    • LEARNING GOES BEYOND POTENTIAL KNOWLEDGE, WHICH IS THE DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL
comparing piaget and vygotsky
COMPARING PIAGET AND VYGOTSKY
  • PIAGET CLAIMS THAT DEVELOPMENT SETS THE LIMITS ON LEARNING
  • VYGOTSKY CLAIMS THAT LEARNING GOES BEYOND DEVELOPMENT AND DRWS IT IN ITS WAKE
vygotsky true concept
VYGOTSKY – TRUE CONCEPT
  • TRUE CONCEPT
    • CONCEPT THAT RESULTS FROM THE AMALGAM OF NATURAL AND SOCIETAL KNOWLEDGE
      • TRUE CONCEPTS
        • ENRICH SOCIETAL KNOWLEDGE BY GROUNDING IT IN DIRECT EXPERIENCE
        • ENRICH NATURAL KNOWLEDGE BY MAKING IT MORE GENERAL
true concepts
TRUE CONCEPTS

EXAMPLES:

  • CONFLICT – TEMPERATURE
  • ANALOGY - ARITHMETIC

AVERAGE

developmental constraints
DEVELOPMENTAL CONSTRAINTS
  • WHERE ARE THERE DEVELOPMENTAL CONSTRAINTS ON LEARNING?
  • CULTURAL/HISTORICAL CONSTRAINTS
    • Cultural periods in history (middle ages, enlightenment) had different worldviews than modern (post-industrial, information age)
  • INDIVIDUAL CONSTRAINTS
    • Vygotsky did not write about this very much
tools
TOOLS
  • MATERIAL
    • mediate between subject and physical environment
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL
    • mediates between individual and himself and between individual and others
notations as technologies
NOTATIONS AS TECHNOLOGIES
  • NOTATIONS AS TECHNOLOGIES (OLSON, FERREIRO, LEVIN, TOLCHINSKY-LANDSMANN, RAVID, TUFTE)
  • PURPOSE: FREEZE THE CHANGING WORLD
notations
NOTATIONS
  • “USES”:
    • 1. CAN BE CARRIED FROM PLACE TO PLACE
    • 2. CAN BE USED ACROSS TIME (NOVELS FROM THE MIDDLE AGES)
  • ENABLES:
    • 1. REFLECTION ON THE NOTATED SYSTEM
    • 2. SELF-REGULATION
    • 3. REGULATION OF OTHERS’ THINKING AND

BEHAVIORS

notational systems
NOTATIONAL SYSTEMS

Examples:

  • WRITING – NOTATES SPOKEN WORD (UR - 4,500 YRS)
  • DANCE NOTATION – NOA ESHKOL
  • CARTOGRAPHY
  • NUMERICAL SYSTEM
  • MUSICAL NOTATION
  • MIDDLE AGES – DORIT TANAY
class activities
CLASS ACTIVITIES
  • JEANNE BAMBERGER (MIT) TASK
      • CONSTRUCT NOTATIONS FOR A RHYTHM
  • ANALYZE INSTRUCTIONS