Reconstruction. President Lincoln's Last Public Address: Speech on Reconstruction April 11, 1865 .
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President Lincoln's Last Public Address: Speech on Reconstruction April 11, 1865
We meet this evening, not in sorrow, but in gladness of heart. The evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond, and the surrender of the principal insurgent army, give hope of a righteous and speedy peace whose joyous expression can not be restrained… By these recent successes the re-inauguration of the national authority--reconstruction--which has had a large share of thought from the first, is pressed much more closely upon our attention. It is fraught with great difficulty. Unlike a case of a war between independent nations, there is no authorized organ for us to treat with. No one man has authority to give up the rebellion for any other man. We simply must begin with, and mould from, disorganized and discordant elements… I have been shown a letter on this subject…in which the writer expresses regret that my mind has not seemed to be definitely fixed on the question whether the seceding States, so called, are in the Union or out of it…We all agree that the seceded States, so called, are out of their proper relation with the Union; and that the sole object of the government, civil and military, in regard to those States is to again get them into that proper practical relation.
5. Established Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves adjust to new circumstances.
"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude...shall exist within the United States." The 13th Amendment was passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865.
C. Southern states passed “black codes.” These were laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans
White southerners organized the Ku Klux Klan to terrorize African Americans and keep them from voting.
The KKK was in decline from 1868 to 1870 and was destroyed in the early 1870s by President Ulysses S. Grant's vigorous action under the Civil Rights Act of 1871
Radical gov’t formed in Southern states: African Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags)
C. The inability of Radicals to impeach Johnson preserved the balance of power b/w the executive and legislative branches
B. Industrial growth in the South factories built to diversify economy
C. Rise of Jim Crow laws- "separate but equal" status for African Americans. Meaning inferior treatment & accommodations for blacks.
3. Plessy v. Ferguson- upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation, under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
3. Ida B. Wells- focused on stopping the lynching of African Americans through protest and editorials.
During six weeks of the months of March and April just past, twelve colored men were lynched in Georgia, the reign of outlawry culminating in the torture and hanging of the colored preacher, Elijah Strickland, and the burning alive of Samuel Wilkes, alias Hose, Sunday, April 23, 1899.
The real purpose of these savage demonstrations is to teach the Negro that in the South he has no rights that the law will enforce.