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Pathway to progress: Girls making the grade in rural Sindh. Theresa Castillo, MA CHES * Teachers College, Columbia University. Sindh Profile. Second largest province (~42 million, 23.7\% primary school age) E conomic growth (2004-2009 ; GDP 18 \%) Impact of floods (2010-2012)

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pathway to progress girls making the grade in rural sindh
Pathway to progress: Girls making the grade in rural Sindh

Theresa Castillo, MA CHES * Teachers College, Columbia University

sindh profile
Sindh Profile

Second largest province

(~42 million, 23.7% primary school age)

Economic growth

(2004-2009; GDP 18%)

Impact of floods (2010-2012)

Urban/Rural disparities

Low performance scores on learning outcomes

gender parity index gpi
Gender Parity Index for Sindh Province, primary vs. secondary schools (2007-2011)Gender Parity Index (GPI)

One gender indicator

Measures enrollment, not attendance or learning gaps

Rural/Urban Divide = Slow progress

Source: UNESCO Islamabad. (2011). Policy analysis of education in Sindh.

case study design
Case Study Design

Sample Size

Methods

  • 22 rural districts
  • 12,806 households
  • 40,488 children
  • 58% boys, 42% girls
  • Ages 3-16 years
  • 706 schools (gov/priv)

ASER 2012 data sets: Household mother/child, government school, & private school

Sindh- Rural Area focus

Cross-tabulations

Chi-square tests, p<.05

education at a glance where are the girls
Education at a glance: Where are the girls?

School Enrollment

Out of School

Types of Schools

comparison of school enrollment by gender ages 6 16
Education at a glance: Where are the girls?

Nearly 2x’s more rural boys vs girls enrolled

Rural boys and Urban girls have similar %

Urban girls enrolled at twice the rate of rural girls

Little change from 2010 to 2012

Comparison of School Enrollment, by Gender, Ages 6-16
education at a glance where are the girls1
% Rural Enrollment 2012,

by Type of School & Gender

Education at a glance: Where are the girls?

The greatest share of girls enrollment is in Madrassa and Non-formal education(NFE)/Other

(n=24,324)

education at a glance where are the girls2
Education at a glance: Where are the girls?

% Out of School, ages 6-16

(dropouts/leftouts)

  • Increase since 2011: 29.5% out of school
  • 37.8% of boys and girls dropout in grade 5
  • Of those never enrolled, 48% boys, 52% girls
  • Statistically significant, p<.001
education at a glance where are the girls3
Rural Girls’ Enrollment, by School TypeEducation at a glance: Where are the girls?
  • More girls enrolled in govschools (90%) compared to all other schooling.
  • Smaller percentages : Private 8.7%, Madrassa 0.7%,Other 0.6%
are girls l earning l iteracy and numeracy s kills
Are Girls Learning Literacy and Numeracy Skills?

Literacy

Reading letters

Reading a story

Numeracy

Recognizing

numbers 1-9

Complete simple subtraction

learning outcomes by gender and type of school
Results:

Government and private schools were statistically significant across all outcomes (p=.000)

Reading letters was statistically significant (p<.05) for girls in Madrassas and girls and boys in Other

Math 1-9 was statistically significant (p<.001) for both in Other

% Learning Outcomes, by Gender and Type of School
does learning environment matter
Does Learning Environment Matter?

Environment Variables

Drinking Water

Boundary Wall

Usable Toilets

-Menstrual Hygiene Management

Mother’s Education

Female Teachers

Government & Private Schools Surveyed, by category (2012)

availability of resources by s chool c ategory
% Availability of Resources by School Category

Government

Private

(n=85)

(n=621); * Statistically significant, p< 0.05

mother s education
Mother’s Education

% School Enrollment, by

Mother Education, by Gender

female teachers
UNESCO (2011) reports for Sindh province, 20o9/2010:
  • 1/5 teachers in rural public primary schools are women;
  • Women account for approximately 1/4 teachers in rural public secondary;
  • 30% of teachers are women in madrassas
Female Teachers

No disaggregated data available

for teachers

Source: UNESCO Islamabad. (2011). Policy analysis of education in Sindh.

study limitations
Study Limitations

Urban sample was too small for comparison (Karachi only)

Aggregate data

( i.e. teachers gender, mixed schools)

Limited information on Madrassas

Inability to link the household data to school data

recommendations
Recommendations

Qualitative research to explore differences in schools in relation to girls’ enrollment (such as defining barriers, attitudinal changes, etc.)

Conduct more research to better understand the role of Madrassas in girls’ education.

Conduct more exploratory research on the relationship between school type and learning outcomes.

Advocate for more resources in mixed government schools for toilets. boundary walls and drinking water to achieve optimal , given 90% of enrolled girls attend these schools.

Disaggregate data ( i.e. urban/rural, gender, school category) needed in order to understand disparities

Incorporate gender-responsive indicators and maps into future assessments (i.e. mixed schools, teacher gender)

acknowledgements
ASER Pakistan

SaharSaheed

Huma Zia

Photo credits: ASER Pakistan & UNICEF

We will continue our journey to our destination of peace and education for everyone.

~ MalalaYousafzai

Acknowledgements

www.aserpakistan.org

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