Post Classical Civilizations: The Crusades
The Crusades • Christians and Jews saw Jerusalem as a “holy city” • So did the Muslims
The Call to Free the Holy Land • The Byzantine Empire wanted help in kicking the Muslim Turks out • 1095- Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades to recapture the Holy Land • The Church promised salvation to all who participated.
The Effects of the Crusades • Math • Silk • Rice • Spices • Coffee • Perfumes • Cotton cloth • Raisins • Glass mirrors New Ideas and Products
The Effects of the Crusades • Increased Trade • Europeans demanded foreign goods • Led to trade with Middle East and Asia • Growth of Intolerance • Led to the Christian persecution of Jews and Muslims
The Later Middle Ages • Europe underwent gradual change. • With an increase in trade, a new merchant class rose. • Merchants and craftsmen organized into powerful associations known as guilds.
The Later Middle Ages • Saw the introduction of a new art style. • First Gothic church was built in France in 1231. • It had pointed arches, high spires, and stained glass windows
English Political Traditions • Magna Carta • King John was forced to sign an agreement promising not to take away any free man’s property or to imprison any free man without following procedures established by the law. • Guaranteed all free men the right to a trial by jury. • LIMITED THE POWER OF THE MONARCHY (KING)
English Political Traditions • Parliament • Later English kings summoned nobles and representatives of the towns to grant them new taxes • Led to the origins of Parliament
Notebook Assignment • Look up pictures of the Greek Parthenon and Chartres Cathedral. • What characteristics make these two buildings alike? How are they different?