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Period 2 Classical Civilizations. 600BCE-600CE. Differences from early civilizations. 1. Size and political strength - could more easily control large areas of land 2. Complex cultures - religions emerge and art and literature flourish

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differences from early civilizations
Differences from early civilizations
  • 1. Size and political strength - could more easily control large areas of land
  • 2. Complex cultures - religions emerge and art and literature flourish
  • 3. Better written records - sophisticated forms of writing
  • 4. More complex long distance trade - new trade routes
  • 5. Contact between nomads and sedentary people
  • 6. Direct influence on modern civilizations
three areas
Three Areas
  • 1. Mediterranean*
  • 2. Indian subcontinent
  • 3. East Asia
      • *Mediterranean
        • Greece, Persia, Rome
greece
Greece
  • Geography
    • Land travel difficult
brief history
Brief History
  • Minoans controlled area by 1600 BCE
  • Replaced by Mycenaeanswho were often at war
  • Invasions and attacks hurt Mycenae leads to dark era until 800BCE
  • Isolation until Phoenicians made contact and traded with Greeks
  • Trade brings prosperity
political development
Political Development
  • Greek city-states (or polis) begin to develop
  • Major city-state was Athens; rival = Sparta
  • All sorts of governments were adopted
  • In Early Athens, an oligarch named Solon (6th century BCE) set up laws that could be revised; rather than passed down
  • About 510 BCE Cleisthenes further experimented with democracy
political development1
Political Development
  • Athens "Town Meeting" - all free males called on to make decisions (no women or slaves)
  • Early Sparta
  • Highly militaristic society
  • Emphasis on self-discipline, obedience and physical fitness
    • Clip from 300; 7-9 on M&M
slide9

Ancient Greece – Polis

Minoans

Mycenaeans

Sparta

Athens

economic characteristics
Economic Characteristics
  • Trade was most important in economy
  • Invention of coins
  • Farmers = part-time soldiers
  • Hoplites - armored soldiers who fought in close cooperation together
  • Colonies were established for surplus, tribute and trade
    • Greece - Ionia, Marsalia (Marseille)
social distinctions
Social distinctions
  • Citizen and non-citizen
  • Sparta, there was theoretical equality
    • Simple clothing and no jewelry and were frugal
  • Sparta maintained self-sufficiency; leery of trade
  • Athenians had no disdain for luxuries
  • Almost 30% of the population was enslaved (but generally well treated)
women
Women
  • Spartan women were free and equal with men
  • Women expected to be physically fit
  • Men were at war so women ran Sparta
  • Athenian women were confined to the home
  • No political rights and could not own property or businesses

Bronze statue of girl running

cultural characteristics
Cultural Characteristics
  • Polytheistic
    • Zeus and Hera
    • Poseiden, sea
    • Athena, wisdom and war
    • Apollo, sun
  • Most educated Greeks did not take the gods very seriously
  • Emphasis on secularism to seek answers to dilemmas of life
p hilosophy love of wisdom
Philosophy - "love of wisdom"
  • Greek philosophers invented "natural law"
  • Socrates - emphasis on rationalism, ability of humans to reason
  • Plato - Socrates student; allegory of the cave
  • Aristotle - Plato's student

Plato

more cultural advancements
More Cultural Advancements
  • Greeks developed: Drama, Lyric poetry, "Classical" architecture (Acropolis)
  • Cultural achievements by classical era Greeks are part of Hellenic culture (hellas = Greece)
persia
Persia
  • Geography
  • Rose in Iran; between major trading areas
persian empire 558 332 bce
Persian Empire (558-332 BCE)
  • Founded by Cyrus the Great
  • Darius I (521-486 BCE)
    • Balanced central administration & local governors
    • Divided government into 3 districts ran by satraps
    • Built the Royal Road
    • Fought Persian Wars (500-479 BCE)
      • Led to the decline of the Persian Empire
persian empire1
Persian Empire
  • Persian Society
    • Women worked in textile manufacturing
    • Government used slaves to complete public works projects
  • Persian Economy
    • Government coined money
    • Facilitated trade from Greece to India
  • Persian Religion
    • Zoroastrianism
brief history1
Brief History
  • Organized under Cyrus the Great and expanded eventually to the Mediterranean
  • Cyrus created strong political system
  • Subjects allowed to keep local laws and customs
  • Local governors (called satraps) collected tribute and provided for soldiers
  • Major city - Persepolis; court created there
history continued
History continued
  • Athens was expanding in Anatolia and so was Persia, under Darius I
  • Major war at Marathon (490 BCE) which the Greeks won
  • Battles continued; the Persian Xerxes was weakened in 480 BCE at Thermopylae
  • "east" vs. "west"
persian wars
Persian Wars
  • Contributed to Persia's decline and Athens as the premier city-state of Greece
  • Athens formed alliances
    • Delian League under leader Pericles
  • Athens attacks Corinth, who is Sparta's ally
  • Peloponnesian War (431-404BCE) between Sparta and Athens
  • Sparta eventually won but Greece was vulnerable to attack
kingdom of macedon
Kingdom of Macedon
  • King Phillip II (359-336 BCE) transformed Macedonia by building a powerful military
  • Poised to expand his empire after uniting most of Greece under his control, he was assassinated
  • His 20 year old son, Alexander took over
alexander the who
Alexander the…. Who?
  • Defeated Anatolia, Egypt (greeted as pharaoh), Persia
  • Conquered land between the Adriatic Sea and Indus River
  • Never lost a battle
  • Becomes known as Alexander the Great
  • Hellenistic Age follows because of spread of Greek culture
  • Hellenistic synthesis refers to blending of cultures, creation of cosmopolitan societies connected by trade and Greek culture
important wars
Important Wars

Persian Wars

Peloponnesian War

100 years are full of polis on polis violence

430 BCE – Sparta dominates the land and Athens the sea

404 BCE – Sparta buys Persian boats and defeats Athens at sea

338 BCE - Macedonians – rough and rowdy (questionable ‘Greakness’), lead by Philip, wins control of Greek city states

334 BCE Alexander Philip’s son spreads the GreekEmpire

  • Ionian Revolt - 499 BCE -Greeks upraise on Persian rule
  • Xerxes - 480 BCE - launches massive army (300,000?)
  • Battle of Thermopylae– 300 Spartans lead by Leonidas fight heroically and inspire other Greek hoplites who are better armed that Asiatic infantry to continue to fight Persia
  • The Delian League - lead by Athenian generals and navy liberate the Greek city states over the next 20 years
slide30
Rome
  • heavily influenced by the Greeks
  • dominates the area for 700 years; encompassed 2000 years
the legend of romulus and remus
The legend of Romulus and Remus
  • Rhea was married to Mars, the Roman god of war. Rhea had twin sons. She loved her boys, but there were plots afoot by other gods and goddesses to harm her father, herself, her husband, and her children. To protect the boys, she set them adrift on the river, hoping someone would find them. Who would not love such beautiful boys?
  • Sure enough, first they were found by a she-wolf who fed them. Then a shepherd and his wife adopted the boys. 
  • As the twins grew older, they decided they did not want to take care of sheep. They wanted to be kings. They decided to build a city on the shores of the Tiber. They both wanted to be the only king. They quarreled. In a fit of rage, Romulus picked up a rock, killed his brother, and made himself king. 
  • That’s how Rome started.
political development2
Political Development
  • Etruscans established city-states about 800BCE
  • One of their earliest communities was called Rome (509 BCE)
    • *Romulus and Remus
  • 509 BCE - Rome gains independence and declares itself a republic, or state without monarch
  • Republic lasted until 31BCE when Augustus becomes emperor
  • Republic government not a democracy
political development3
Political Development
  • Senate - aristocrats
  • General Assembly - Plebeians (90%)
  • Two consuls were elected from the Senate
    • one-year terms
  • Plebeians eventually were allowed representatives called tribunes
political development4
Political Development
  • Julius Caesar, patrician general, challenged the power of the Senate and created a Triumvirate (rule of three) (Crassus and Pompey)
  • Caesar was assassinated by senators (44BCE)
  • Octavian (Caesar's nephew) won control
  • Senate declares him Augustus ("revered one")
augustus achievements
Augustus’ Achievements
  • Created civil service
  • Codified Roman law
  • New courts and legal experts
  • Built roads and public works
  • Reorganize the navy
  • PaxRomana
women1
Women
  • Treated as children
  • First father supervises her, then husband, then son
  • However, many women supervised the family business
  • Roman literature – vocal and powerful women
culture
Culture
  • Legal Innovations
  • 1) Concept of precedent
  • 2) Belief that equity should be the goal of the legal system
  • 3) Natural law
  • 4) Interpretation of the law (responsibility of judges)
culture1
Culture
  • Imitation of Greek gods
    • Same god different name
      • Zeus = Jupiter, Poseidon = Neptune, Athena = Minerva, Ares = Mars
      • No immortality; no afterlife (most)
culture2
Culture
  • Spread of Latin as a language
  • Engineering -roads and aqueducts

Virgil – Roman poet known for Aeneid

decline
Decline
  • Defense of long borders
  • Class struggles
  • Epidemics
  • Second capital city - Constantinople
    • Constantine in 4th Century CE
  • Germanic invasions; last emperor in 476CE
china
China
  • At same time of Rome increasing influence, China was emerging from
  • Warring States Period - end of Zhou dynasty, marked by political turmoil, warlords constantly challenging Zhou
  • How to solve problems?

Qin Shi Huangdi

3 belief systems f orm
3 Belief Systems Form
  • 1) Legalism
    • humans = evil and only obey authority by force
    • strict laws, harsh punishments
    • sacrifice personal freedom for the state
  • 2) Daoism
    • Laoziencouraged people to avoid useless struggles by following Dao (path)
    • politics and military lack morality
    • individual retreat from society; emphasis on acceptance
  • 3) Confucianism
    • based on hierarchical, harmonious relationships to create orderly society
    • 5 relationships key, family at the center
qin dynasty
Qin Dynasty
  • Qin emphasized Legalism
    • iron weapons to defeat and unite China
    • king declares himself first "emperor"
  • Shi Huangdi, 221-210BCE
coming from underground
Coming from Underground
  • Shi Huangdi, the First Emperor of China, created the army to protect him in the afterlife
first emperor s accomplishments
First Emperor’s accomplishments
  • Unified warring states
  • Network of roads
  • Linked/extended Great Wall
  • Single written script
  • Mass production
  • Interchangeable parts
  • Unified law code and currency
iron fist
Iron Fist
  • Ruthless
  • Absolute right of command
  • Heavy taxation and oppressive policies
  • Several assassination attempts
    • Built covered walkways
    • Wore disguises
    • Slept in different places every night
  • Obsessed with finding the secret to immortality
    • Searched for magic elixirs
    • One such elixir contained mercury and it’s believed mercury poisoning contributed to his death.
  • Shortly after his death revolts start that lead to the end of Qin
han dynasty 206bce 220 ce
Han Dynasty (206BCE - 220 CE)
  • Liu Bang - quickly brought order
    • strengthened bureaucracy
    • Bureaucracy – body of non-elected government officials
  • Forbidden City (only his family, servants, and closest advisors)
han political development
Han Political Development
  • Strong, nonhereditary bureaucracy
  • De-emphasized legalism
  • Emphasized Confucian values
  • “Mandate of Heaven" - emperor had support of the heavens as long as he was a good ruler
economic activity
Economic Activity
  • Han rulers expanded trade
  • Threats from the north
  • Restores and expands Great Wall
economic development
Economic Development
  • Canals built
  • Main export was silk
    • (guarded methods and created monopoly)
social distinctions1
Social Distinctions
  • Highest social distinction for Shi
    • (mandarins)
  • Shi liked Confucianism
  • Exam to identify best candidates for bureaucracy
  • Only wealthy had leisure to study for them
main social classes
Main Social classes
  • 1) Scholar-gentry - linked to shi; wealth based on land
  • 2) Ordinary, but free, citizens - majority peasants; could be forced to join army
  • 3) Underclass - described in many texts are barbarians; shifting cultivators, dependent peasants, slaves
cultural developments
Cultural Developments
  • artisan class grows
  • brush pen
  • paper
  • water mills for agriculture
  • rudders and compasses for ships
  • new mining technologies for iron and copper
  • society was a patriarchy
culture and science
Culture and Science
  • calligraphy - artistic rendering of written word
  • mathematics, geography, astronomy were valued
  • medicine - blood circulation, acupuncture invented

Chi

decline1
Decline
  • Last 200 years were gradual decline
  • Causes
    • defense of long borders
    • rise of nobility lead to competition for power
    • corruption in government led to dynasty losing effectiveness
  • Dynastic cycle continues
  • ***comparison Rome and Han, p.99
characteristics
Characteristics

Han China

  • Well organized bureaucracy based upon Confucian ideas and education

Roman Empire

  • Well organized bureaucracy founded on Roman law and classical learning
characteristics1
Characteristics

Han China

  • Emphasis on Family ancestors: patriarchical
  • Reliance on landed gentry
  • Engineering accomplishments: roads, canals, the Great Wall

Roman Empire

  • Emphasis on family: pater familias
  • Reliance on patricians
  • Engineering accomplishments: roads, aqueducts, amphitheatres, domes, sewage systems, central heating
characteristics2
Characteristics
  • Grand Canal
  • Roman Roads
characteristics3
Characteristics
  • Great Wall
  • Roman Aqueduct
characteristics4
Characteristics

Han China

  • Religion: Confucianism, Daoism, native gods, intro to Buddhism

Roman Empire

  • Religion: Emperor as god, paganism, intro to Christianity
decline of han dynasty
Decline of Han Dynasty
  • Infighting among ruling elites
  • Inequitable distribution of land - tax burden fell on peasants rather than on large landowners
  • Series of peasant rebellions
  • Generals usurp political power - become warlords
decline of han dynasty1
Decline of Han Dynasty
  • 220 CE generals divide empire into three kingdoms.
  • Emigration of nomadic peoples into N. China kept country disunited
decline of roman empire
Decline of Roman Empire
  • Internal opposition - barrack emperors
  • Difficulties in administering vast empire creates rivalries and divisions of authority
  • Eastern and Western Empire - capital moved to Constantinople
decline of roman empire1
Decline of Roman Empire
  • Germanic invasions by Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Visigoths
  • 476 Odacer deposes final Western Roman Emperor
  • Eastern Roman Empire becomes Byzantine Empire - lasts another 1000 years
shared characteristics
Shared Characteristics
  • Decline in Morals and Values
    • Decline in those values that have upheld this particular society together
  • Public Health and Urban Decay
  • Political Corruption
  • Unemployment and Inflation
  • Inferior technology
  • Military Spending
classical india
Classical India
  • Shiva is the third god in the Hindu triumvirate. The triumvirate consists of three gods who are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world. The other two gods are Brahma and Vishnu.
classical india1
Classical India
  • Before the fall of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, Aryans migrate into Indian sub-continent from their home north of the Black Sea
  • By 1000 BCE Aryans settled between Himalayan foothills and Ganges River
  • By 500 BCE, migrated to Deccan plateau
  • Interacted with native Dravidians
caste system
Caste System
  • Caste - social class of hereditary and usually unchangeable status
  • Aryans used the word "varna" (Sanskrit for "color") to refer to social classes
caste
Caste
  • Brahmins - highest social class; priests and scholars
  • Kshtriya (roughly pronounced shatria)- warriors and government officials
  • Vaishya (roughly pronounced vice-ya)- landowners, merchants, artisans
  • Shudra- common peasants and laborers
  • During classical era, caste system becomes more complex
    • subdivided into jati, or birth groups, each with own occupations, duties and rituals
early religion and culture
Early Religion and Culture
  • 1500-500BCE = Vedic Age
  • “Vedas" - religious texts that were passed down from generation to generation of Aryans
    • Rig veda was most important
  • Over the years, Aryan and Dravidian beliefs blended, as reflected in a body of works called Upanishads
  • The Upanishads spoke of a universal spirit, known as Brahman, which was eternal and unchanging
    • central belief was through reincarnation, atman (human spirit) could join the universal spirit as long as human behaved ethically
    • these beliefs come to be known as Hinduism
traditional goals
Traditional Goals
  • Dharma -Virtue
  • Artha - Gain wealth and success
  • Kama - Find pleasure
  • Moksha - seek enlightenment
karma
Karma
  • Indian tradition that deeds performed in past and present determines what will happen in the next life cycle
story of india
Story of India
  • Video Episode 1 - start with 25:00 Sanskrit, end with 43:05 (Mahabharata)
buddhism
Buddhism
  • Begins in the classical period
  • Siddhartha Gautama was born a prince
    • did not claim to be a god, but elevated to that status by followers
  • Episode 2 - 3:00-14:32, Buddhism
buddhism1
Buddhism
  • Embraced by traders and merchants; spread
  • Confucianism and Buddhism link with government
mauryan dynasty
Mauryan Dynasty
  • Despite jati, geographic, language, cultural differences, the Mauryan Dynasty comes to rule
    • Almost 300 years
  • Located along Ganges River trade routes
  • Chandragupta Mauryan was founder of the dynasty
ashoka
Ashoka
  • Ashoka was his grandson and greatest ruler of Mauryans
  • Huge military was dominant and destroyed Kalinga, trampled people
  • Elephant Army
  • Shocked by the violence of this battle, he turned to Buddhism
rock edicts
Rock Edicts
  • Ashoka’s Rock Edicts
  • "Wheel of Law" is a symbol that has represented dharma
collapse
Collapse
  • After Ashoka’sdeath, attacks from borders drove India into regional kingdoms for more than 500 years
gupta empire
Gupta Empire
  • 4th century BCE
  • Founder - Chandra Gupta
  • Smaller and less powerful than Maurya
  • Show map here
expansion of trade networks and communication patterns
Expansion of Trade Networks and Communication Patterns
  • Silk Road
  • Xi'an in China to the eastern Mediterranean
  • 2nd century BCE, Zhang Jian made his way to Tarim basin where he discovered "heavenly horses“
  • http://virtuallabs.stanford.edu/silkroad/SilkRoad.html
  • Chinese started to trade silk for horses
  • Tarim basin was connected by trade routes to the west
  • http://www.amnh.org/ology/features/silkroadmusic/music.php
silk road products
SILK ROADPRODUCTS
  • From China - peaches, apricots, cinnamon, ginger, silk
  • From the West - alfalfa, grapes, pistachios, sesame, spinach
  • Inventions in any one place made it to all the places
  • Stirrup
  • Pastoral nomads of Central Asia
  • Provided protection, insured smooth operation
  • Christianity and Buddhism spread
indian ocean maritime system
INDIAN OCEAN MARITIME SYSTEM
  • Trade all the way back to Ancient Egyptians
  • 1) Southeastern China to Southeast Asia
  • 2) Southeast Asia to the eastern coast of India
  • 3) Western coast of India to the Red Sea and the eastern coast of Africa
slide94

INDIAN OCEAN MARITIME SYSTEM

  • PRODUCTS
  • Ivory from Africa, India and Mesopotamia
  • Frankincense and myrrh from southern Arabia
  • Pearls from the Persian Gulf
  • Spices from India and Southeast Asia
  • Pottery from China

Frankincense and Myrrh for personal, religious, medicinal use

sahara trade routes
Sahara Trade Routes
  • 1st century BCE, camels introduced
  • Demand for Salt
  • Extensive routes connected the Sahara to Indian Ocean and Silk Road
major migrations 200 600ce
MAJOR MIGRATIONS200-600CE
  • Huns
  • Attila organizes attacking army
  • Invaded Hungary, Balkans, Gaul, northern Italy
  • Defense of Gupta frontiers from the Huns led to its collapse
  • Germanic People
  • Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Vandals
  • Fought amongst themselves
  • Rome falls, kingdoms spring up
  • Bantu
  • Desertification
  • Migrated to sub-Saharan Africa
  • Spread languages, knowledge of iron, agricultural techniques
  • Gradual, not fast and aggressive like Huns or Germanic
  • Polynesians
  • Gradual migration
  • From mainland Asia to Fiji, Tonga, Samoa
  • Double canoes, triangular sails