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Advanced Instructional Design. Fall 2001 Dr. Santo Instructor Joel Price Presenter. Computer-aided Instruction. Distance vs. Traditional Education Why are Students Successful? Why is Instruction Successful? How Important is Interaction? Cost vs. Benefits.

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advanced instructional design

Advanced Instructional Design

Fall 2001

Dr. Santo


Joel Price


computer aided instruction
Computer-aided Instruction
  • Distance vs. Traditional Education
  • Why are Students Successful?
  • Why is Instruction Successful?
  • How Important is Interaction?
  • Cost vs. Benefits
distance vs traditional education
Research indicates that the instructional format itself (e.g., interactive video vs. videotape vs. "live" instructor) has little effect on student achievement as long as the delivery technology is appropriate to the content being offered and all participants have access to the same technology.

Achievement on various tests administered by course instructors tends to be higher for distant as opposed to traditional students (Souder, 1993).

Conventional instruction is perceived to be better organized and more clearly presented than distance education (Egan, et al., 1991).

Distance vs. Traditional Education
why are students successful
Why are Students Successful?
  • Distance education students:
    • Are voluntarily seeking further education.
    • Have post-secondary education goals with expectations for higher grades.
    • Are highly motivated and self-disciplined.
    • Are older.
    • Possess a more serious attitude toward the courses.
why is instruction successful
Why is Instruction Successful?
  • Good distance teaching practices are fundamentally identical to good traditional teaching practices.
  • Extensive pre-planning and formative evaluation is necessary.
  • Learners get more from the courses when the instructor seems comfortable with technology, maintains eye contact with the camera, repeats questions, and possesses a sense of humor.
how important is interaction
How Important is Interaction?
  • Many distant learners require support and guidance to make the most of their distance learning experiences.
  • Learners value timely feedback regarding course assignments, exams, and projects.
  • Learners benefit significantly from their involvement in small learning groups.
  • Learners are more motivated if they are in frequent contact with the instructor.
cost vs benefits analysis
Cost vs. BenefitsAnalysis
  • Costs of offering distance education courses may be high. There are high costs associated with offering distance ed courses.
    • Technology: hardware, software
    • Transmission: Fiber, satellite
    • Maintenance: Repair
    • Infrastructure: Site
    • Production: ID professional
    • Support: Staff
  • Accessible training to students in rural areas.
  • Students may complete their course of study without suffering the loss of salary due to relocation.
  • Students are exposed to the expertise of the most qualified faculty.
effective teaching and learning with distance education
Student Traits

Successful students develop persistence and skills in self-directed work.

Students must maintain persistence and a clear focus to succeed.


A passion for learning,

Strong individual responsibility

Teacher Traits

Conversant with new technology

Develops new instructional styles.

Moving from creating instruction to managing resources and students and disseminating views (Strain, 1987)

critical elements for successful teaching at a distance
Critical elements for successful teaching at a distance
  • Instructor enthusiasm
  • Organization.
  • Strong commitment to student interaction.
  • Familiarity with the technology.
  • Critical support personnel.
technology effectiveness framework
Technology effectiveness framework

The intersection of two continua - learning and technology performance - defines the effectiveness of a particular technology in student learning.

The framework's horizontal axis is learning, which progresses from passive at the low end of the continuum to engaged and sustained at the high end.

The vertical axis is technology performance, which progresses from low to high.

technology effectiveness framework1
Technology effectiveness framework
  • Pattern A - Engaged learning and high technology performance 
  • Pattern B - Engaged learning and low technology performance 
  • Pattern C - Passive learning and high technology performance
  • Pattern D - Passive learning and low technology performance
directions for change
Directions for Change
  • Type I trajectory:
    • D - B.
      • This is movement from passive learning and low technology performance to engaged learning and low technology performance.
directions for change1
Directions for Change
  • Type II trajectory:
    • B -A.
      • This is movement from engaged learning and low technology performance to engaged learning and high technology performance.
directions for change2
Directions for Change
  • Type III trajectory:
    • C -A.
      • This is movement from passive learning and high technology performance to engaged learning and high technology performance.
directions for change3
Directions for Change
  • Type IV trajectory:
    • D -A.
      • This is movement from passive learning and low technology performance to engaged learning and high technology performance.
using the framework to evaluate technology
Using the framework to evaluate technology
  • What are the learning goals (i.e., the vision of learning) to which technology is applied?
  • How are these learning goals moving the school toward reform?
  • How will a technology-enhanced curriculum support instruction that address those learning goals?
  • Does the technology-enhanced approach help restructure the school to meet its plan for educational reform?
  • Do the students achieve the learning goals using the technology-enhanced curriculum?
  • Can the school implement cost-efficient technologies given its goals and current realities?
  • Can the school extend or adapt less functional technologies so that they are more functional in supporting a global community of learners in sustained learning that is challenging and authentic?
moving toward engaged learning and high performance
Moving toward engaged learning and high performance
  • E-Mail.
    • e-mail lets students interact and explore
  • Computer-Driven Approaches and Educational Software
    • provide sophisticated expert systems for learning very complex concepts and procedures
  • Integrated Learning Systems (ILS’s).
    • provide information from a central source using LANs
  • Distance Education Technologies
    • combination of audio conferencing with graphic support such as an electronic blackboard, still video, or computer-generated visual material
web based wbt training
Web-based (WBT) training
  • Issues relevant to the future of distance education:
    • Market demand
    • Learner participation
    • Training options
    • Program design
market demand
Market demand
  • Technology-assisted training will represent half of all training methods by the year 2002 (McGee 1999)
    • Some companies have realized up to 75 percent savings in their training budgets
learner participation
Learner participation
  • The typical American distance learner is one who is 25-50 years of age, taking courses to learn new subjects and skills or to update old ones, and experienced in participating in education
training options
Training options
  • Asynchronous vs. Synchronous
    • Asynchronous classrooms are well suited to develop skills that require analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
    • Synchronous classrooms allow the instructor and student to be online at the same time.
program design
Program design
  • “Most WBT programs are little more than self-paced learning, success in these programs hinges on the learner's ability to engage in self-directed learning and to develop metacognitive skills for the Web" (Driscoll 1999, p. 24).
learning outcome issues for instructional designers
Learning Outcome Issues for Instructional Designers
  • Electronic instruction facilitated greater depth of learning
  • Allowed students greater ability to participate in discussions
  • Students felt disconnected and frustrated by technical problems
implementation tips for instructional designers
Implementation Tips for Instructional Designers
  • Offer short classes.
  • Make graphics simple and easy to read.
  • Foster collegiality
  • Vary interactions
  • Avoid superfluous media
  • Use a combination of synchronous and asynchronous learning
developing electronic classrooms
Developing Electronic Classrooms
  • The electronic classroom is a technology and service package that allows educators to access and utilize a wide variety of available electronic resources.
    • The resources can range from a video tape located at the school's library to a live multi-point connection to broadcast an expert lecturer to various distant campuses.
    • The successful integration of video, audio, and computer transmission techniques, coupled with educational applications, form the backbone of the electronic classroom.
evaluation of electronic classrooms
Evaluation of Electronic Classrooms
  • Student and faculty response to technology must be analyzed.
    • Measuring satisfaction, outcomes, retention, and overall indications of student learning is imperative
    • Faculty satisfaction and support are critical to overall success of electronic classrooms.
    • Evaluation may include:
      • faculty and student end-of-course surveys
      • evaluation of new courses and instructors
      • annual meetings
what is webct
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