Tuul-Terelj basin of Mongolia. N.Buyankhishig Mongolian University of Science and Technology G.Udvaltsetseg Institute of Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Science. B asic information of Mongolia. Population: 2.8 million
N.Buyankhishig Mongolian University of Science and Technology
G.Udvaltsetseg Institute of Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Science
Population: 2.8 million
Area: 1,566,000 sq km (610,740 sq mi) Land boundaries: 8,158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and with
China 4,673 km
Average altitude: 1,580 m above sea-level
Climate: Extremelycontinetal climate
Average summer temperature +20'C, average winter temperature -26'C, average rainfall 200-220 mm.
Main problems are pollution and scarcity of water resources, harmful effect of the human activities on the environment, industrial pollution,digging mines in some river basins.
The country’s geographic location is sitting at the major continental basins:
The National Survey for Surface Water was conducted in 2003 by
the MNE the following:
- River and streams are 5565: 683 are dried up, 4882 with discharge
- Springs are 9600: 1484 are dried up, 8116 with discharge
- lakes and oasis are 4196: 760 are dried up, 3436 with discharge.
location of groundwater monitoring net
First groundwater model was done by Jadambaa.N in 1977.
Organization of formal Soviet Union PNIIIS carried out hydrogeological investigation on new water resources for Ulaanbaatar city in 1983.
Japan International Cooperation Agencey (JICA) investigated water supply system of Ulaanbaatar and its surroundings in 1995.
Narangerel, ZH (1974), Jadambaa, N (1977), Banzar, E (1979), Lhan-Aasuren, G (1982), Anand, A (1983), Batsukh, N (1994) are described the in detail the hydrogeology, engineering geology, hydrogeologic characteristics, hydraulic properties, yield, water level and budgets, and water quality of the Ulaanbaatar area.
In 1993-1995 Geoecological Institute did some observation work in the area.
map and cross sections
Surface water-groundwater interaction, natural groundwater discharge
The territory of Mongolia divided into eight large river basins based on
economic and environmental significances, namely:
1.Kherlen River basin
3. Selenge River basin
4.Onon, Ulz, and
Khalkh rivers basin
5.Northern Gobi Rivers
6. Southern Gobi of
7. Khubsugul Lake basin
8. Tuul River basin
Large river basins in Mongolia
Average height is 1300m a.s.l.
The Tuul River originates close to Hagiin Har Nuur in Khentii Mountains and flows westerly through Ulaanbaatar. Its flow direction is generally from north-east to south-west although it changes its direction several times. The Tuul River and afterwards drains to the Selenge River, which in turn feeds onto Lake Baigal
The geology around the area consists mainly of Carboniferous sediments, which are intruded by Jurassic to Triassic granitoids rocks and locally covered by Cretaceous sediments and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits
Climate is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with a hot, dry summer and cold winter.Annual precipitation in the area varies from 242.7 mm to 396.7 mm, depending on the altitude of the observation stations.
Legend: Break line- humidity (%), Solid line-temperature (Co), Column- precipitation (mm)
Daily mean discharge data has collected at the Ulaanbaatar station from 1946 to 1991, with values ranging from 0 m3/s (winter time) to 627 m3/s (during flooding).
Average annual discharge at Ulaanbaatar station is 26.57m3/s and average specific discharge is calculated at 4.22m3/s. The maximum daily mean discharge recorded is 338.0m3/s, but the minimum discharge recorded during the rainy season was only 6.84m3/s
The width of the river in the city area is 45-50 m, but dry seasons falls to 5-18 m. River depth during droughts is about 0.9-1.2 m, average velocity is 0.31-2.24 m/sec and maximum velocity reaches 4 m/sec.
The potential of the groundwater resources is estimated at 220 00 cubic meters per day. The city’s current water consumption is estimated at 150 00 cubic meters per day, and it is expected to approach the limit in the near future. The water consumption forecast estimates an increase to 308 000 cubic meters per day by 2020.