Mongolia Daalkhaijav Damiran Enkhjargal Darambazar Union April 2003
Flag • The flag’s blue center symbolizes the eternal blue sky. • The two red sides symbolize progress and prosperity. • The golden Soyombo stands on the red stripe nearest to the flagpole.
National symbol • The Soyombo is the Mongolian national symbol (it is attributed to Zanabazar, 17th century). • A flame at the top represents the blossoming and continuation of the family. Its three prongs signify prosperity for the Mongolian people in the past, present, and future. • The sun and crescent symbolize the origin of the Mongolian people. • The triangles express the people's determination to defend the country's freedom and independence. The top one represents triumph over internal enemies, while the bottom symbolizes victory over external enemies. • The rectangles stand for honesty, justice, and meritocracy. • Two intertwined fish symbolize vigilance and wisdom, as fish never close their eyes. • The two vertical rectangles on the sides signify fortress walls, a symbol of the Mongolian saying, "Two humans in friendship are stronger than walls of stone."
History • Archeological digs have uncovered human remains in the Gobi and other regions of Mongolia dating back nearly 500,000 years. • The Mongols were nomadic people of northern Asia and were little more than a loose confederation of rival clans. • In the late 12th century Chinggis khaan had united most of the Mongol tribes, and "all those who dwelled in felt-walled tents“.
History • The Mongol Dominance, 1300-1405. This was the height of the Mongols' glory: the empire stretched from Korea to Hungary and as far south as Vietnam, making it the largest empire the world has ever known.
Mongolian Khaans Chinggis Khaan(1162-1227) Khubilai Khaan (1215 –1294)
History • The Genghis Khan imprinted in the memory of the west bears little relation to the Chinggis Khaan revered by Mongolians. To Europeans, the name epitomizes mercilessness and warmongering; to the Mongolians, it embodies strength, unity, law and order. Chinggis Khaan was also generous and loyal. A highly charismatic man, he nonetheless also expected loyalty from everyone, including those who served his opponents. He is reputed to have put to death people who, thinking they would gain his good graces, betrayed their lords to him. • Ghinggis Khaan’s grandson, Khubilai Khaan completed the subjugation of China, ending the Song dynasty and becoming emperor of China's Yuan dynasty (1271-1368).
History The success of the Mongol conquests should be attributed at least in part to the military intelligence. The Mongols had a extensive network of spies and had extensive information of an enemy before they engaged them in battle. Their use of diplomacy was remarkable. Advanced military tactics. Psychological warfare. Many peoples found it easier to submit than to resist.
History • In the mid 14th century Yuan dynasty disintegrated and Mongols returned to Mongolia. • On 1 December 1911, independence from Manchu was declared, with a theocratic government under the leadership of the 8th Jebtzun Damba. • Chinese occupied the capital of Mongolia in 1919. • In early 1921, retreating White Russian anticommunist troops entered Mongolia and expelled the Chinese. • Mongolian nationalists asked the Russian Bolsheviks for help. Together they recaptured Ulaanbaatar in July 1921. • On 26 November 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR) was declared.
Facts • Area: 1,566,000 sq km Population: 2.6 million People: Khalkh Mongols (86%), Kazaks (6%), Chinese (2%), Russian (2%), about a dozen other ethnic groups • Languages: Mongolian (official), Kazakh, Russian, Chinese • Religions: Tibetan Buddhism, Muslim, Shamanism
Political system: Parliamentary Republic. Legislature: Parliament, Ikh Hural, with 76 seats, elected for four years. Head of the State: President elected for four years. Government: Prime Minister appointed by Ikh Hural for four years.
Major industries: Copper, livestock, cashmere, wool Major trading partners: Russia, China, South Korea, Japan,US
Ulaanbaatar The capital city is located along the River Tuul trimmed by Bogd Khan Mountain in the south and surrounded by three other mountain ranges. It is the home for the quarter of the nation’s population..
Lifestyle the five domesticated animals revered by nomads
Culture and lifestyle Mongolians have a high regard for horses since, for centuries, they have relied on them for transport, sustenance, and companionship.
Environment • Mongolia is one of the highest countries in the world, with an average elevation of 1580m (5180ft). • The Mongol Altai Nuruu are permanently snowcapped, and their highest peak is 4370m (14,350ft).
Environment • Lake Khovsgol is one of the country's largest and most spectacular areas. • Its 380 cubic km of water make it the fourteenth largest freshwater lake in the world by volume, with about 2% of the world's fresh water. • The lake is 136 km long and 36 km wide. At its deepest, the lake dives 262 meters.
Environment • The southern third of Mongolia is dominated by the Gobi Desert. • There are 33 different Gobi, where sandy desert occupies only 3 percent of the total territory. • Wild asses, camels, snow leopards, mountain sheep and gazelles flourish here, as do different types of flora. • The Great Gobi Reservation established in 1975 was designated by the United Nations as the fourth largest Biosphere Reserve in the world in 1991.
Environment • Dinosaur skeletons and their petrified eggs have been preserved here to the present day. • Mongolia is considered to be the origin country of ruminant animals. Tyrannosaur
Wildlife Wild camel or Khavtgai Wild horse or Takhi Gobi Bear or Mazaalai Asiatic Wild Ass or Khulan
Domestic animals • The two - humped Bactrian camel (367, 000 camels in the country). They were domesticated thousands of years ago and are closely related to the rare wild camel known as khavtgai. • Camels are perfect for long distance travel in the Gobi, but are slow (average about 5km/hour ); easy to manage (a camel can last for over a week without drink and a month without food); adaptable (a camel can survive the hardest winter); can carry a lot of gear (up to 250kg); and provide wool (an average of 5kg/year); milk (up to 500 liters a year) and meat.
TRADITIONAL CLOTHES • Mongols do like to wear nice, richly decorated clothes which compensate the simple, ascetic nomadic lifestyle. • A harsh climate and uneasy life demand attention to the smallest details of clothes.
Women costume • Mongolian women traditionally have had long hairs. To maintain and decorate elaborate hair- do, women used many types of golden and silver hair-pins and slides, often precious stones. • So exotic and colorful are Mongolian clothes that French artists working on the latest episode of the Star Wars could not resist but to adopt a full dress of a Mongolian woman for Queen Amadala.
Religion • In Mongolia, there were about 700 monasteries, but after the communist takeover in 1921 monasteries were closed and all religious worship and ceremonies outlawed. • Since 1990 there’s been a revival of Buddhism (and other religions). • There is a significant minority of Sunni Muslims in the far western regions, most of whom are ethnic Kazaks.
Culture • In the power of the eternal heaven, the order of the oceanic khan of the people of the Great Mongols, the conquered people must respect it and fear them. The Seal of Guyug Khaan (1206-1248)
Culture • Mongolia’s paintings, music and literature are dominated by nomadism and Tibetan Buddhism. • Trio singing a folk song. Mongolian national musical instruments: horse-head fiddle and khuuchir. • Example:
Culture • The ancient religious mask dancing "Tsam" is one of the significant religious rituals reflecting buddhist teaching through correct apostolic images and essence. • The "Tsam" dance ceremony was first introduced into Mongolia in the VIII century when the famous Indian Saint Lovon Badamjunai was invited to Mongolia to sanctify the construction of the first Tibetan temple Samya. • It is a theatrical art performed by skilled dancers bearing the external appearance and characters of different apostles and devils, animals or real people. It requires magnificently ornamented costumes. .
Relations • Mongolians have always taken wholeheartedly to Tibetan Buddhism. • The leader of Tibetan Buddhism Dalai Lama’s visited Mongolia several times.
NAADAM FESTIVAL • The Nadaam festival is the biggest festival of the year for Mongolians. • Usually occurring in July, it runs for three days in all parts of the country and highlights the greatest athletes in horse racing, archery, and wrestling. • This festival has been held for centuries as a form of memorial celebration, as an annual sacrificial ritual honoring various mountain gods.
Horse race • During the races, up to 1,000 horses can be chosen to compete. • The horse races are broken down into six categories based on the age of the horses. For example, two-year-old horses race for 10 miles (16 km) and seven-year-olds for 17 miles (30 km). • The race is conducted on the open grasslands with no set track or course.
Horse race Children from the ages of 5 to 13 are chosen as jockeys and the race tests the horses skill and the riders.
Archery • Archery was an inseparable part of Mongolian history ever since it was invented some 20,000 years ago. • A stone monument raised during Chingis Khaan times states that a marksman named Esukhei hit a target at 355 ald or more than 500 meters distance. People of that time were very strong and bows were well made. Strength, concentration and sharp eyes are vital for a good archer
Archery • Today we use 60-72 gram arrows and this is 10 times heavier than those needed for distant shooting. With proper arrows it will be possible to shoot for as far as 350 meters. • Women participate in all but the wrestling category.
Wrestling • There are no weight divisions and no time limits. • A small wrestler can be pitted against someone two times his weight. • A fall is when any part of a wrestlers body, except his hands or feet, touches the ground. • Titles are given to winners of a number of rounds: Falcon to those winning five rounds, Elephant for seven rounds, and Lion to the one winning the whole tournament.
Mongolian wrestlers in Japanese sumo Makuuchi Banzuke, • Asashoryu-Yokozuna • East #1 The winning moment
Mongolian sumo wrestlers in Makuuchi Banzuke • Kyokutenho • Komusubi, West#4 Kyokushuzan Maegashira #3 Asasekiry Maegashira #13
Reference • http://baatar.freeyellow.com/montsam.html • http://www.2camels.com/photos52.php3 • http://www.discover.mn/mongolia/places.html • http://www.un-mongolia.mn/archives/wildher/khovsgol.htm • http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/north_east_asia/mongolia/history.htm • http://www.sumo.or.jp/eng/index.php • http://mglclub.com/ • http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~corff/im/Landeskunde/CK.html • http://www.un-mongolia.mn/archives/ger-mag/issue2/fashion.htm
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