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Research Methodology (UNP0010) Semester 2 – 2012/2013 Lecturer: Dr. Nor Zairah Ab.Rahim. INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS. Designed for: Master by Course Runs like this - all students : Attend all 3 meetings; 4 hours in each meeting

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  1. Research Methodology (UNP0010) Semester 2 – 2012/2013Lecturer: Dr. Nor ZairahAb.Rahim INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  2. Designed for: • Master by Course • Runs like this - all students : • Attend all 3 meetings; 4 hours in each meeting • 1.Meeting 1: Get to know the research topic and interest, lectures on several key area of research methodology Part 1, Discussion. • 2. Meeting 2: Library Search, Quiz about topic in Meeting 1, continue with lectures on several key area of research methodology Part 2. • 3. Meeting 3: Presentation of Proposal (First 3 Chapters of Thesis) • Assessment: i. tasks in the subject outline, ii. quizzes, iii. Presentation, iv. Written Proposal, v. Overall Participation

  3. END PRODUCT? For Writing Guidelines, refer to: 1.http://www.ais.utm.my/zuraini/category/documents-sharing/ 2. http://sps.utm.my/sps/images/academicresources/UTM%20Thesis%20Manual%202007.pdf • Presentation of Proposal • PPT Slide • Hardcopy Proposal • Corrected Proposal • 15 Pages • PPT Slides Submit Online to me. Dateline: 15th March 2013 by 4 PM

  4. Research

  5. Research

  6. Research

  7. Research • Creation of new knowledge, using an appropriate process to the satisfaction of the users of the research • learn how to cook rendang, learn the best stall that sell cheap & tasty rendang

  8. What is Research? Research is a human activity based on intellectual investigation and aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising human knowledge on different aspects of the world. Research is the method used to accumulate scientific knowledge. Roscoe, J.T. (1975) INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  9. What is Research? Research is any conscious premeditated (planned/ intended/ studied) inquiry – any investigation which seeks to increase one’s knowledge of a given situation. Goldhor, H. (1972) INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  10. Research Definitions

  11. Differences between undergraduate project/research vs Masters and Ph.D thesis (research)

  12. Research Problem Research Design Observation Data Collection Literature Data Analysis Existing Problems Findings & Future works Activities in a Research INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  13. Research Process

  14. Types of Research In social science • Basic research – aimed at generating fundamental knowledge and theoretical understanding about basic human and other natural processes • Applied research – focuses on answering practical questions to provide relatively immediate solutions • Action research – on solving practitioners’ local problems More Specific INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  15. Computing Discipline The Computing Discipline • Hardware – Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. • Software – Computer Science, Software engineering. • Organizational – Information Systems Information Technology INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  16. Categories of Research in CS • Application-Based Research • How knowledge areas of CS can contribute to other fields eg Bioinformatics, Healthcare, tsunami detection system, earthquake prediction system • Theory-Based Research • How knowledge of Cs can be enhanced, improved, formulated eg Fuzzy Set Theory, Pattern recognition. • Industry-based Research • Practical usage eg CAD, QC Dept, Human resource dept. INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  17. Reasons for doing research • To add to the body of knowledge • To solve a problem • To find out what happen • To find evidence to inform practice • To develop a greater understanding of people or their world • To predict, plan and control • To contribute to other people’s well-being • To contribute to personal needs • To test or disprove a theory • To come out with a better way • To understand another person’s point of view • To create more interest in the researcher

  18. The outcome of the research • A new or improved product • A new theory • A re-interpretation of an existing theory • New or improved research tool or technique • A new or improved model or perspective • An in-depth study of a particular situation • An exploration of a topic, area or field • A critical analysis • Unanticipated outcomes

  19. Sources of research ideas • Suggestions from people • Past research students’ work • Recent conference & journal paper (www.scholar.google.com) • Call for papers • Current issues • Clients needs • To support or refute certain statements e.g: - Green computing is the future - Social networking is the future communication - Baby dumping is the result of new year events

  20. Never stop writing… • Keep notes of: • Possible research questions • Anything that came across your mind in relation to the research; thoughts problems, insights, plans, emerging analysis, interpretation • Helps to clarify your ideas – esp when you meet your SV • Exercise for your proposal/thesis writing

  21. What Research is NOT? • Research is not information gathering • Gathering information from resources such as books or magazines. • No contribution to new knowledge • Research is not the transformation of facts • No contribution to new knowledge although this might make knowledge more accessible. INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  22. Who is a Researcher? • Matured • Ability to focus and concentrate • Disciplined • Independent • Hardworking • Innovative & Creative • Critical Thinking • Available (time) INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  23. Research Skills • To prepare effective proposal • To generate results • To communicate results : presentation & publication INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  24. Think Like A Researcher • An investigation (an inquiry) to find something out. • Controlled inquiry concerning certain events. • Problem solving. • Application of the scientific approach to study a problem • Systematic , controlled, empirical and critical investigation guided by theory and hypothesis. INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  25. Think Like A Researcher • Encounter problems • State problems • Propose hypotheses • Deduce outcomes • Formulate rival hypotheses • Devise and conduct empirical tests • Draw conclusions

  26. Think Like A Researcher • Concepts: Accepted collection of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects, conditions, situations and behaviors. An Idea expressed as symbol or in words (e.g: s=d/t; s=speed, d=distance, t=time) • Constructs: A definition specially invented to represent an abstract phenomenon for a given research project. • Operational Definitions: Stated in terms of specific criteria for testing or measurement. E.g: if the concept is "weight", an operational definition could be "the weight of an object as measured on a scale". • Theory: A set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions and propositions that are advanced to explain and predict phenomenon. INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  27. Examples of constructs ULP0010: Research Methodology

  28. Research is NOT a SIMPLE Linear Activity • Never more in a straight line. • Always loops back & forth. • Manage the parts in order to manage the whole. • Searching for something you won’t know until you find it. • Nobody can solve the world’s great problems in a tiny project. INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  29. Research Paradigm • Positivist Paradigm • Attempts to test hypothesis, precise quantitative data by using experiments, surveys and statistical analysis. Independent variables & dependent variables, cause & effect. • Interpretive Paradigm • To understand phenomenon • Critical Paradigm • To help subjects to change & improve current conditions eg creating strategies, empowering & initiating actions.

  30. Theory Researchers’ Language Concepts Constructs Conceptual schemes Models/ Framework Operational definitions Terms used in research Variables Propositions/ Hypotheses

  31. Theoretical Framework • Is a conceptual model of how one theorizes or makes logical sense of the relationships among the several factors that have been identified as important to the problem. • LR identifies the variables that might be important as determined by previous research findings. • From TF then testable hypothesis can be developed to examine whether the theory formulated valid or not. INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  32. Variables • A variable is an entity that can take on different values. Anything that can vary can be considered a variable. INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

  33. References • Oates, B.J (2006) Researching Information Systems and Computing. Sage Publication. London • "Academy of Management Review"; What Constitutes a Theoretical Contribution?; David A. Whetton; 1989 • "Human Resource Management"; HRM: A Map, Model or Theory?; Mike Noon; 1999 • SPS Research Methodology Slides (Prof Dr. Muhd Rashid Rajuddin, Prof Dr. Noor Azlan Ahmad Zanzali, etc.) • Slides from previous semester (Prof. Dr. Bob Colomb, Dr. Noorminshah I.Ahad, PM Dr. Zuraini Ismail)

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