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Caliphs of Islamic Empire. Conquest, dynasties, and exansion. Caliph. “successor to Muhammad” Expanded territory of Islam. 1 st Caliph. Muhammad dies in 632 Followers chose successor Abu Bakr 1 st Caliph Daughter was one of Muhammad’s wives Friend of Muhammad. Arab Conquest.

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caliphs of islamic empire

Caliphs of Islamic Empire

Conquest, dynasties, and exansion

caliph
Caliph
  • “successor to Muhammad”
  • Expanded territory of Islam
1 st caliph
1st Caliph
  • Muhammad dies in 632
  • Followers chose successor
  • Abu Bakr
    • 1st Caliph
    • Daughter was one of Muhammad’s wives
    • Friend of Muhammad
arab conquest
Arab Conquest
  • Islamic movement grew much during Abu Bakr’s reign
  • Romans expanding Italy, Muslims expanding Arabia
  • Conquest encouraged by Quran
    • Jihad=defensive warfare
next caliph
Next Caliph
  • Abu Bakr died
  • No clear successors
  • Umar A-Khattah was 2nd caliph
    • Assassinated
  • Uthmar was 3rd caliph
    • Assassinated
umayyads
Umayyads
  • Civil war
  • Supporters of Abu Bakr vs. supporters of Muawwiyyah
  • Muaw becomes caliph
    • Known for his virtue
    • “I never use my sword when my whip will do, nor my whip when my tongue will do”
    • Made office of caliph hereditary
    • Moved capital from Medina to Damascus
  • Beginning of Umayyad dynasty
umayyad dynasty
Umayyad Dynasty
  • Conquest
    • Conquered people along Mediterranean coast of northern Africa
    • Soldiers scene as ideal citizens
    • Those defeated kept land but paid rent to Muslims
    • Attempted attack on Constantinople to defeat Byzantine Empire
      • Muslims lost
      • Uneasiness would continue between 2 empires
split in islam
Split in Islam
  • Revolt
  • Shiite Muslims
    • Muhammad appointed successor
      • 'Ali ibnAbiTalib, husband of the Prophet's daughter Fatimah
    • Believe in free will
  • Sunni Muslims
    • Follow hadiths (teachings to go along with Quran)
    • Believe Muhammad appointed no successor
      • Abu Bakr, father of the Prophet's favored wife, 'A'ishah (elected by people of Medina)
    • Believe human actions are controlled by Allah’s will
    • Majority in Muslim world today
abbasid dynasty
Abbasid Dynasty
  • 750-Abu al-Abbas (descendant of Muhammad’s uncle) overthrew Umayyad dynasty
  • Built new capital city at Bagdad
  • All Muslims could hold both civil and military office
  • Haran al-Rashid
    • Best known of caliphs
    • “Golden Age of Abbasid dynasty”
    • Known for his charity
    • Supported artists and writers
same problems
Same Problems
  • Fighting over successor
    • Harun al-Rashid’s sons fought to succeed him
    • Almost destroyed city of Bagdad
  • Vast wealth led to financial corruption
  • Shortage of qualified Arabs for key positions
    • Recruited Persians and Turks
  • Rulers of provinces broke away and formed independent dynasties
seljuk turks
Seljuk Turks
  • Converted to Islam
  • Prospered as soldiers during Abbasid dynasty
  • Moved in on Arab empire
    • 1055 took over Bagdad
    • Sultan “holder of power”
mongols
Mongols
  • Led by Genghis Khan
  • Advanced across Asia and Middle East
    • Destroyed everything in their path
    • Reached Red Sea
  • Eventually converted to Islam and intermarried with local peoples
  • End of great Arab Empire
review
Review:
  • Another name for a successor of Muhammad is:
  • 1. Umayyad
  • 2. Mosque
  • 3. Caliph
  • 4. Shiite
review1
Review:
  • What are the two major sects of Islam?
  • 1. Abbasid and Umayyad
  • 2. Sunni and Shiite
  • 3. Abu Bakr and Muaw
  • 4. Muhammadism and Muslim
review2
Review:
  • Which Islamic Dynasty would have experienced a “golden age”? (Remember, a golden age is a time with great intellectual, artistic, and societal achievements –Athens during Pericles’ reign)
  • 1. Muhammad
  • 2. Umayyad
  • 3. Seljuk Turks
  • 4. Abbasid
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