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khalifat rasul allah = “successor to the Messenger of God” = caliph. the rashidun (rightly-guided caliphs):. 632-634 Abu Bakr 634-644 ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab 644-656 ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan 656-661 ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib followed by: the Umayyad dynasty (r. 661-750). 632-34 Wars of the Ridda

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khalifat rasul allah = “successor to the

Messenger of God” = caliph

the rashidun (rightly-guided caliphs):

632-634 Abu Bakr

634-644 ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

644-656 ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan

656-661 ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

followed by:

the Umayyad dynasty (r. 661-750)


632-34 Wars of the Ridda

jihad (struggle/holy war)

636 Battle of the Yarmuk

637 Damascus taken


637 Persian army destroyed at

Qadisiyya. Ctesiphon taken.

654 Completion of conquest of


639-42 Muslim conquest of Egypt. Fustat


diwan (register)


644 Death of ‘Umar

655 Muslims defeat Byzantines at sea,

take Cyprus.

656 Death of ‘Uthman. Outbreak of civil


661 Death of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. Mu‘awiya

ibn Abi Sufyan founds Umayyad

dynasty, which rules until 750.


Merv Bukhara Samarqand

Transoxiana Amu Darya/Oxus

Indus Sind


717-18 Last Muslim attempt to take


Berbers Visigoths

711-16 Muslims conquer Spain

732/733 Charles Martel defeats Muslims at


717-20 Caliphate of ‘Umar II (‘Umar ibn

‘Abd al-‘Aziz)


Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jabir ibn Dawud

al-Baladhuri (d. c. 892)

Very little known about him. Spent most

of life in Baghdad, but travelled widely

to study.

Companion of caliph al-Mutawakkil (r. 847-61)

2 major works: Futuh al-Buldan - history of

Muslim conquests to taking of Iraq/Persia

Ansab al-Ashraf - biographies of important



Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi‘i (767-820)

Founder of the Shafi‘i school of law

Brought up in Mecca. Studied in Medina under

Malik ibn Anas (d. 795).

Spent time in Yemen, Egypt, Iraq incl.

Baghdad (where worked as a teacher),

Mecca, then back in Egypt (Fustat),

where died.


Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi‘i (767-820)

Wrote many legal works, including:

Risala (defense of Prophetic hadith as

first source of law after Qur’an)

Kitab al-Umm (legal teaching on

various subjects)