khalifat rasul allah = “successor to the Messenger of God” = caliph. the rashidun (rightly-guided caliphs):. 632-634 Abu Bakr 634-644 ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab 644-656 ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan 656-661 ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib followed by: the Umayyad dynasty (r. 661-750). 632-34 Wars of the Ridda
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Messenger of God” = caliph
the rashidun (rightly-guided caliphs):
632-634 Abu Bakr
634-644 ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab
644-656 ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan
656-661 ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib
the Umayyad dynasty (r. 661-750)
jihad (struggle/holy war)
636 Battle of the Yarmuk
637 Damascus taken
Qadisiyya. Ctesiphon taken.
654 Completion of conquest of
639-42 Muslim conquest of Egypt. Fustat
655 Muslims defeat Byzantines at sea,
656 Death of ‘Uthman. Outbreak of civil
661 Death of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. Mu‘awiya
ibn Abi Sufyan founds Umayyad
dynasty, which rules until 750.
Transoxiana Amu Darya/Oxus
711-16 Muslims conquer Spain
732/733 Charles Martel defeats Muslims at
717-20 Caliphate of ‘Umar II (‘Umar ibn
al-Baladhuri (d. c. 892)
Very little known about him. Spent most
of life in Baghdad, but travelled widely
Companion of caliph al-Mutawakkil (r. 847-61)
2 major works: Futuh al-Buldan - history of
Muslim conquests to taking of Iraq/Persia
Ansab al-Ashraf - biographies of important
Founder of the Shafi‘i school of law
Brought up in Mecca. Studied in Medina under
Malik ibn Anas (d. 795).
Spent time in Yemen, Egypt, Iraq incl.
Baghdad (where worked as a teacher),
Mecca, then back in Egypt (Fustat),
Wrote many legal works, including:
Risala (defense of Prophetic hadith as
first source of law after Qur’an)
Kitab al-Umm (legal teaching on