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The World in 1050. As Western Europe was just emerging from a period of isolation, civilizations were thriving elsewhere. ISLAMIC EMPIRE. INDIA. CHINA. Islamic civilization spread from Spain to India. Islamic traders travel to West Africa. . Cities thrived, despite political division.

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the world in 1050
The World in 1050

As Western Europe was just emerging from a period of isolation, civilizations were thriving elsewhere.




Islamic civilization spread from Spain to India. Islamic traders travel to West Africa.

Cities thrived, despite political division.

Hinduism and Buddhism flourished.

Culture flourished under Tang and Song dynasties.

Chinese made advances in technology.




The Soninke people built the great trading empire of Ghana.

Merchants traded gold all over the world.

Mayas cleared rain forests to build cities.

Native Americans in Peru built empires.

Scholars studied Greek and Roman writings.

Merchants mingled with traders from the Italian states.

c. Jarrett, Zimmer, Killoran, Mastering the TEKS

the rise of islam1
The Rise of Islam
  • In the fifth century, warfare between the Byzantine and Persian Empires interrupted overland trade routes from East Asia.
  • Trade in spices, Chinese silks, and Indian cottons, shifted to the sea routes connecting India with Arabia and the Red Sea.
  • Overland caravans carried goods up the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Cities and towns developed near wells along these caravan routes, including Mecca.
  • In the 7th century, a new religion emerged here: Islam.
    • The term Islam is Arabic for submission.
  • Within a hundred years, Islam grew to control an area larger than the Roman Empire.

c. Jarrett, Zimmer, Killoran, Mastering the TEKS

mohammed the prophet of islam
  • Mohammed, the founder of Islam, worked in Mecca as a merchant and shepherd.
  • In 610, Mohammed had a vision that the Angel Gabriel told him to convert the Arab tribes, who then believed in many gods, to belief in a single God, known in Arabic as “ALLAH.”
  • Muslims are strict monotheists.
  • They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they call Allah.
  • Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an is the word of God.

Islam  An Abrahamic Religion

  • 622 Hijrah  Mohammed flees Mecca for Medina. * The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 A.H.)
  • Mohammed's revelations were compiled into the Qur’an after his death.

Mohammed will gather his followers to retake Mecca in a jihad.


The Qur’an

  • Sacred text of Islam: Muslims believe it contains theword of God as revealed to Mohammad
  • 114 surasor chapters
  • In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful.
  • Writtenin Arabic – responsible for the spread of the Arabic language in the Middle East
the five pillars of islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • The Faith or SHAHADAH – Muslims must affirm: “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet.
  • The Prayer or SALAT – Muslims must pray five times a day, while facing east towards the city of Mecca.
  • The Alms or ZAKAT – Muslims must give money to the poor and pay taxes to the mosque.
  • The Fast or SAWM – During the month of Ramadan, Muslims cannot eat or drink during daylight hours.
  • The Pilgrimage or HADJ – If physically able, a Muslim must make a pilgrimage (religious trip) to Mecca during the 12th Islamic month.

Islamic Schism = Two Sects of Islam


أهل السنة والجماعة‎

Shi’a شيعة‎



  • Sharia body of Islamic law toregulate moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.
  • Applies Qur’an to all legal situations.
  • Interpretation of Sharia varies between Sunni and Shi’a sects of Islam.
islam spreads umayyad s
Islam Spreads- umayyads

By the time of Mohammed’s death almost all of Arabia had converted to Islam, but now the tribes were united under one cause, one language (Arabic), and one religion.

However, by this time the Byzantines and Persians were both weakened from centuries of fighting each other (power vacuum) and Arab Muslims succeeded in creating a vast empire that extended from the Indus Valley into Europe as far west as Spain, where it was halted at the Battle of Tours.

Under the first four Caliphs (successor to Mohammed) Islam will expand rapidly. These leaders will be known as the Umayyad Caliphate. The wars of expansion were also advanced by the devotion of the faithful to the concept of jihad. Muslims are obliged to extend the faith to unbelievers and to defend Islam from attack.

Age of the Caliphs

  • Expansion under Mohammad, 622–632/A.H. 1-11
  • Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661/A.H. 11-40
  •  Expansion during the UmayyadCaliphate, 661–750/A.H. 40-129
abbasid caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate

750 - the Abbasids took over the caliphate. The Abbasids will focus on trade rather than war.

Move capital to Baghdad (House of Wisdom) that preserved and translated scientific/medical documents into Arabic.

Achievement: algebra & astrolabe

Muslim rulers treated Jews and Christians (People of the Book) with respect since they believed to worship the same God.

Permitted to have self-governing communities.

Had to pay a special tax & could not hold some public office.

golden age of muslim culture

While learning was in decline in Western Europe, a Golden Age of Muslim Culture flourished– a period of great advances in culture and technology.

Arab Muslims absorbed the cultural achievements of the Greeks, Persians, Romans, Jews and Byzantines.

They also controlled a trading area larger than the ancient Roman Empire had been.

Goods from India, China, Africa, Spain, and the eastern Mediterranean entered through Arab territories.

islamic world in later years
Islamic world in later years

In the 12th century, Muslims warred with the Christians over control of the Holy Land in the Crusades.

Christians captured Jerusalem in 1099, but the city was later retaken by the Muslim leader and warrior, Saladin (1137-1193). Saladin remains a hero to the Islamic world for uniting the Arabs and defeating the Crusaders in battle.

The rich Islamic Empire attracted invaders from Central Asia:

In the 11th century Baghdad was captured by the Seljuk Turks, a Turkish tribe from Central Asia. However, the Seljuk Turks converted to Islam and Baghdad remained the capital of their new empire.

growth of islam
Growth of Islam
  • 1.6 billion Muslims today – expected to be 2.5 billion by 2030
  • Asia/ Africa/ Pacific Region
  • 7 out of every 10 a Muslim
  • Fastest growing religion in the world