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  1. Do Now Draw a picture of a Rome that depicts the different vocabulary. Label the pictures. Republic-a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote Patrician-great landowners, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic Plebeian-in the Roman Republic, a social class made up of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers Consul-a chief executive officer of the Roman Republic; two were elected each year, one to run the government and one to lead the army into battle Praetor-an official of the Roman Republic in charge of enforcing civil law

  2. Chapter 5 Section 2 From Republic to Empire

  3. Questions What led to agroup of senators taking the law into their own hands and killing Tiberius in 133 b.c.? Who were Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar and what events led to one of them becoming dictator in 45 b.c.? What events led to the period beginning in 31 b.c. and lasting until a.d. 14 that came to be known as the Age of Augustus. What taught Augustus that Rome’s power was not unlimitedand what did it do to him? Why did Hadrian withdraw Roman forces from much of Mesopotamia?

  4. Answers Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (GRA•kuhs), urged the council of the plebs to pass land-reform bills that called for the government to take back public land held by large landowners and give it to landless Romans.

  5. Answers • Caesar’s march on Rome started a civil war between his forces and those of Pompey and his allies. Pompey’s defeat left Caesar in complete control of the Roman government. Crassus was known as the richest man in Rome. Pompey had returned from a successful command in Spain as a military hero. Julius Caesar also had a military command in Spain.

  6. Answers Within a few years after Caesar ’s death only two men divided the Roman world between them. Octavian took the west; Antony, the east. Antony allied himself with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII. Octavian’s forces smashed the army and the navy of Antony and Cleopatra.

  7. Answers His attempt to conquer Germany failedwhen three Roman legions led by the Roman general Varus were massacred by German warriors. This knowledge devastated him. For months, he would beat his head on a door, shouting, “Varus, give me back my legions!”

  8. Answers Trajan extended Roman rule into Dacia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula, his successors realized that the empire was too large to be easily governed.

  9. Activity Draw a Map of the different trade routes similar to the one on page 158. What were the economic conditions and chief occupations in Rome during the Early Empire?