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Exploratory Data Analysis Approaches to Reliability: Some New Directions. Chris McCollin Cornel Bunea Maria Ramalhoto. Chris McCollin The Nottingham Trent University. Involved in Reliability since 1976 Worked as a reliability engineer for 3 major aerospace companies
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Problem: environment, conditions, flowcharts, etc
2. State Null Hypothesis
Consider Problem effect across all interfacing levels leading to possible (multiple) causes (flowchart). Address complexity of problem, whether there is more than one. Alternative hypotheses listed. Costing issues addressed.
Failure records, statistical flowcharts – alternative research methodologies identified
Previous works, arguments, risk assessments available?
Physical assumptions, background theory – design equations, physics, use of C and E (appropriate method), 5 Whys, brainstorming, Fault tree, FMEA, MORT, Design of Experiments, etc
Analysis: Questionnaires, Engineering analysis: e.g. materials test, statistical analysis, etc
To next problem, to database for dissemination and comment
Reason: not been installed on the aircraft and since the classification ‘Missing’ did not exist in the failure definitions inventory (because ‘Missing’ was not a failure category) the nearest most appropriate category was NFF. In this case, NFF is a misleading classification because it may indicate that a failure did not exist in the first place.
We should stratify the problem by disseminating our data into more appropriate categories and discuss them individually.
Plenty of Reasons:
No classification for what has been found
Replace everything (saves time)
Interdependencies between systems, e.g. common power supplies
Working at limits of operation
Intermittent Wiring faults
Ground test conditions cannot reproduce latent defect
The environment, the operating conditions and the problem and associated inter-relationships should be outlined in sketch form (e.g. an Affinity diagram) to highlight areas where a possible solution may lie. Flowcharts, diagrams, previous analyses should be made available (preferably on-line).
Description of physical and functional system
Check for missing or corrupt data
Multivariate analyses for determining structure - PCA, correspondence, cluster, correlation, distance measures, etc
Modelling time metric data - time series, PHM, PIM, GLIM, regression
JRC - ISPRA
TT Kaplan Meier plot
No trend found
No trend found GF
Trend found CF
Log rank WR LR
EX WE GF
EX WE GF
See EDA above OS GF
OU CE Trend SC
A repository of tools should be kept with examples of how they may be used in conjunction with each other. The repository may contain examples of the 7 quality tools, the 7 new quality tools, brainstorming, Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), radar charts, etc.