Anglo-Saxon England 400-1066 A.D.. Roman Occupation 55 BC-409 AD. From the 1st-5th centuries, England was a province of the Roman Empire and was named Britannia. Roman conquerors arrived with Julius Caesar and stayed for more than 400 years. By 409 AD the Romans needed all their troops at home. They evacuated their troops from Britain leaving no central government or means of protection from invaders. This left the the island vulnerable to invasions by the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes..