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Late Anglo-Saxon England

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  1. Edward the Elder Unification of Wessex & Mercia Continued Battles with Viking Raiders Athelstan/Edmund/Eadred Eric Bloodaxe, d. 954; York Regained Unification of England Edgar the Peaceable Developments in the Church Dunstan; Benedictine Rule Ethelred the Unready Developments in Administration Growth of Towns The Return of the Danes Cnut Harold Harefoot; Harthacnut Late Anglo-Saxon England Alfred the Great, Winchester

  2. Edward the Elder, r. 899-924 Alfred the Great’s Legacy Royal Bloodline Stability in Wessex Edward the Elder Unification with Mercia Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians; Sister; Wife Reconquest of E. Anglia, Essex Danelaw Shrinking Viking Raids Continue Northwest; York Coin Minted under Edward the Elder; “Eadvveard Rex”

  3. Three Brothers Athelstan, r. 924-39 York Retaken, 927/8 Edmund, 939-46 Inability to Control Northumbrian Rivals Eadred, 946-55 York Lost, 947 Eric Bloodaxe York Regained, 954 Stainmore Bloodaxe Killed 955: Danelaw Conquered; Peace CoppergateHelment, York

  4. Rebuilding the Church and State Edgar the Peaceable, r. 959-75 Brother, Despot, Edwig, d. 959 Church-State Cooperation Winchester Cathedral Developments in the Church(Re-)building Monasteries Old and New Wessex & Mercia Royal Possession of Land Dunstan, Abp Cant. 960-88 Aethelwold of Glastonbury Uniformity of Monastic Practice Strict Benedictine Rule Rise of English Monk-Bishops Secular Landholders Augustine on the Apocalypse; from Glastonbury Abbey; Now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford

  5. England at the Millennium Ethelred the Unready, r. 978-1016 Brother, Anti-Monastic, Edward Martyr “Noble counsel, No counsel” Kingship and Lord’s Anointed Developments in Administration Ealdermen - Governance & Defense Shires further Extended Shire Reeves – Local Admin. Hundred/Wapentake Local Courts; Execution of Justice Royal Commands; English Writs Witan – Royal Counsel Growth of Towns Trade, Taxation, Mints; Industry London, Winchester, York, Norwich, Thetford, Bristol Counties/Shires, as late as 1824

  6. Return of the Norsemen SweinForkbeard (K. Denmark) Raids of Wessex 990s/1000s Reconquest of Danelaw, 1013/4 Oxford, Winchester, London Swein, d. 1014; E-red Returns Edmund Ironside, r. 1016 Son of Ethelred; Split Kingdom Cnut, r. 1016-35 Danish Warrior Conqueror Christian, Statesman Administrative Divisions (4 Earls) By 1028, King of England, Dmark, Norway Sons: Harold Harefoot, Harthacnut Cnut vs. Ironside at Assandun, 1016 Cnut was later made famous for his (supposed) attempt to stop the tide from invading his lands. The waters did not obey, proving to Cnut and his nobles that “the power of kings is vain and trivial, and that none is worthy the name of king but He whose command the heaven, earth, and sea obey by eternal laws.”