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Civil War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Civil War

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  1. Civil War

  2. Review • Election of 1860 • Secession

  3. 1st (Unofficial) Battle: Fort Sumter, SC • April 12, 1861 – General PGT Beauregard opened fire • Major Robert Anderson tried to hold fort but ran out of supplies • Lincoln declared South in rebellion

  4. After Fort Sumter… • VA, NC, TN & AK joined Confederacy • Borders States - between North & South • became very important to the North – DE, MD, WV, KY & MO

  5. More Railroads More Factories Balanced Economy Larger Population Functioning Gov’t. Union Strengths

  6. More Trained Officers Defensive Position Preservation of Way of Life Confederate Strengths

  7. Strategy • The South • Fight a defensive war • Entice England or France to side with the Confederacy in order to keep its immense textile industry supplied with cotton • Fight a “war of attrition” in order to make the war as long, as bloody, and as costly as possible for the North in hopes that they would simply quit

  8. Strategy • The North • Fight an offensive war and to overwhelm the Confederacy with sheer numbers of troops • Gain control of the West via the Mississippi River and march east towards Richmond • Gain control of the far South and march northward towards Richmond • Gain control of the Atlantic and march west towards Richmond

  9. New Technology • Bullet – long piece of metal w/ rounded end

  10. New Technology 2.Rifling – spiral groove cut inside gun barrel

  11. New Technology • Shell – Exploding cannon ball

  12. Canister – Shell filled w/ tiny lead balls New Technology

  13. Ironclad Gunboats – steamships w/ iron plating New Technology

  14. Draft – required military service Suspended Writ of Habeas Corpus – right to a trial before imprisonment Increased Gov’t Power

  15. Internal Revenue Act – tax on liquor, tobacco, medicine & paper became Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Increased Gov’t Power

  16. Created National Currency: Greenbacks Increased Gov’t Power

  17. Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 – project to connect East & West w/ railroads Increased Gov’t Power

  18. Increased Gov’t Power • Emancipation Proclamation: all enslaved people in areas of open rebellion were freed

  19. Company C of the 54th MA Regiment • 1st African American Regiment • Led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw • Most of the regiment was killed during attack on Fort Wagner

  20. Election of 1864

  21. Election of 1864 Rep. – Abraham Lincoln Dem. – George McClellan • Lincoln thought he would lose! • McClellan hated Lincoln!

  22. Election of 1864 • Just before the election Sherman took Atlanta • This victory changed the country’s outlook • Lincoln won re-election

  23. Civil War Prison Camps North • Point Lookout, MA • Camp Chase, OH • Fort Delaware

  24. Civil War Prison Camps South • Libby’s Prison, VA • Andersonville, Ga • 100 soldiers died a day • Commander guilty of war crimes

  25. TERRIBLE! Docs did not sterilize equipment! Went days w/out washing equipment! High rates of infection Medical Conditions

  26. Medical Conditions Some tried to make changes: • Clara Barton – gave first aide to troops & started Red Cross • Dorothea Dix – Organized Union’s nursing corps

  27. Economy NORTH • Flourished • Industry boomed • Women took jobs in factories SOUTH • Declined • Food Shortages • Still produced cotton & not food crops