Civil War 1861-1865
Background • 1860-slavery dominated American life like no other issue in American history • North and South see each others as enemies • Churches split into northern and southern factions • Southern well-to-do families no longer head up north for vacation
Southern, wealthy families, pull their sons out of Harvard and Princeton an place them in the University of the South located in Sewanee, Tennessee Southern schools drove out northern faculty!
Slave States Territories Slave States Free States
Election of 1860 • Four candidates: Lincoln: Republican Douglas: Northern Democrat Bell: Constitutional Union Party Breckenridge: Southern Democrat
Election of 1860 Candidate Electoral Votes Popular Vote
What Southerners feared was now a reality – a man based on the idea of antislavery had won the presidency • December 20, 1860 - South Carolina met in convention and unanimously adopted an ordinance of secession
Southern Secession • February 1861- delegates from seven states met in Alabama to adopt a new constitution and elected Jefferson Davis president • South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas
Upper South • The upper South was undecided on secession, but the Confederacy needed them for economic and military reasons • Republican party refused to do anything to bring these Southern states back in- they had won the election fair and square!
Northern Reaction • South did not have the constitutional right to secede • Secession was a fancy name for a rebellion • Since act was unconstitutional , Northerners believed it was their duty to put down the rebellion • Federal authority in the South silently collapsed as these officials took the same position under the Confederacy
Forts in Confederate Territory • Two forts were built to protect the U.S. against foreign enemies; Ft. Pickens in Pensacola, Florida and Ft. Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina • Both garrison commanders retained allegiance to the Union and would not lower their flag!
Ft. Sumter • Reinforcements were sent to Sumter but never made it because of gunfire from South Carolina • Lincoln still wanted to wait until there was a covert act by the South • But Sumter is short on supplies – Lincoln warns S.C. that he is only sending food, not weapons or men
S.C. and the Confederacy felt pressure to prove that they were an independent nation– independent nations do not allow foreign troops on their soil! S.C. decides to act before the ship arrives April 12, 1861 – Confederates fire on Ft. Sumter In 24 hours the fort was rubble – Major Anderson surrendered – but there were no deaths The first shots of the civil war were fired
An Insurrection Exists! • April 15, 1861 – Lincoln issued a proclamation that an insurrection existed in the boundaries of the U.S • (by calling it an insurrection, rather than a war, the U.S. is not recognizing the legitimacy of the Confederacy – Rebellion, not a war) • Lincoln called for 75,000 troops for 3 months
More States Secede • Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia all joined the Confederacy = 11 states total • Yet, the Confederate flag has 13 stars….??? • The Confederacy hoped Missouri and Kentucky would join, but they do not! 1st Flag of Confederate States of America (CSA)
Border States Kentucky • These states were key to both the Union and the Confederacy • All stayed! • Maryland(surrounds Washington, D.C.) and Kentucky(industry/resources) were the most important Missouri Maryland Delaware
North: Advantages • Had double the Confederacy’s population • North out produced the South in corn and wheat • Twice as many horses as the South • 9/10s of nation’s industrial capacity • Twice as many railway lines
South: Advantages • Union was on the offensive • South was fighting for their families and way of life • Fought on their own terrain near supply lines • Just had to resist long enough to win
Battles Begin • Battles generally have two names: • North – referred to them by the names of creeks and rivers • South- referred to them by names of towns
First Battle:Bull Run • July 1861 – Union and Confederate troops meet at Manassas junction • Most units had little organization, no standard discipline or training, no standardized weapons or uniforms • This made it difficult to tell who the enemy was! • Neither army had a clear chain of command
Under the guidance of Stonewall Jackson, the Confederacy got the upper hand and claimed victory when the Union troops ran away • This battle let both sides know that it was going to be a long war • Lincoln now called for 500,000 troops for five years • For the remainder of 1861, there were no major battles because both sides had to gather better armies
First Modern War • The Civil War is often referred to as the first modern war because of the use of the rifled musket • Rifling allowed bullets to travel at a velocity of 3 to 5 times faster than previous muskets • This lead to increased wounded and dead
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania • July 1863- meet their accidentally and a battle developed • Union stood strong for three days, even after Lee sent 1/3 of his army to attack dead center at Cemetery Ridge • Great Union victory • Bloodiest battle of the war • Lee lost 1/3 of his army!
The Human Price of War
Generals: Stonewall Jackson • Graduate of West Point, he earned his generalship during the Mexican War • Earned his name “Stonewall” after 1st Bull run • Became a major general and took command of Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley • Successful in many battles, he was Lee’s greatest Lieutenants until he was shot accidentally by Confederate fire at the retreat at Chancellorsville • He died of pneumonia shortly after
Generals: Robert E. Lee • Graduate of West Point • 1st offered field command of UNION troops by Lincoln – refused • Lee was against secession and slavery, but felt too much loyalty to Virginia • His defeat and retreat at Gettysburg constituted the turning point of the war • Spent most of the war as commander of the Northern Virginia troops • Became commander of all Confederate armies in Feb. 1865
Generals: Ulysses S. Grant • Graduate of West Point • Earned the title of “unconditional surrender Grant” • Had many victories in the West • Became supreme commander of the Union forces March 1864 • He wore down Lee’s forces forcing Lee to surrender at Appomattox, Va. April 9, 1865
Generals: William T. Sherman • Graduate of West Point • Given command in Kentucky in 1861 • After Shiloh was promoted to major general • Captured Atlanta then began his “March to the Sea” to capture Savannah, Georgia (1864) • Took command of U.S. army in 1869 after Grant became president
Emancipation Proclamation • To retain the loyalty of the border states Lincoln had resisted demands of the radical Republicans for abolition • He modifies his position to help the war effort by offering a moral reason for the Union to fight • The Proclamation declared that slaves in all areas still in rebellion were “then, thencefoward, and forever free.” • This actually freed no slaves for it applied only to areas in which the government exercised no control
His army exceeded instructions by acts of pillage By bringing the war home to civilians by destruction of goods, rather than life, Sherman is often as the first modern general Georgia Sherman led 62,000 men without supplies Orders were to live off the country and destroy war supplies, public buildings, railroads and factories Sherman’s March to the Sea
The South Surrenders • Union soldiers surround Lee in Virginia – no possible escape route • Confederate troops desperate – many starving – North’s blockade and Sherman’s march worked by strangling the South through cutting off access to supplies • April 9, 1865 Appomattox Court House, Virginia
Lincoln Assassinated! • 10:15pm on April 14, 1865 (Good Friday) Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, a radical Confederate supporter, while watching a performance of Our American Cousin • He was carried unconscious across the street where he died just before 7:30am the next morning
Booth’s Escape Route Booth escaped to Virginia, but was caught in a barn near Bowling Green He refused to surrender, the barn was fired on but it is believed that he probably shot himself
Results of the War • 600,000 dead • South destroyed • Slavery ends with the Thirteenth Amendment, December 18, 1865 • Who will be responsible for deciding how to deal with the rebellious South? Congress? The president? • Will the new president, Andrew Johnson, a southerner, follow Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction? • What will the status of the freemen be?