Sleep, Dreams and Sleeping Disorders Specimen Paper Question Revision Task
Use psychological approaches, theories and relevant research to analyse circadian rhythm sleep disorders and their effects on behaviour. • Task – break down this question and develop a paragraph plan which would allow you to fully answer this question. Bullet point the information you would include in each section. • Your answer should: • Explain 2 psychological approaches to explain sleep and their implications eg how we treat sleep disorders. • Explain 2 theories as to why we sleep and their implications eg what will happen according to these theories if we do not sleep. • Explain 2 pieces of research into sleep and their implications.
SQA Answer scheme: • 20 marks can only be gained if all 4 of the following areas have been addressed, 15 if 3, 10 if two and 5 if only one area is addressed: • Identify and make the clear the relationships between at least 2 psychological approaches and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. • Identify and make clear the relationships between at least 2 theories and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. • Identify and make clear the relationships between relevant psychological research and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. • Draw out and relate implications/consequences of theories and/or research (linking back to the task).
Possible structure: • Background – what is circadian rhythm? What is the sleep cycle? What are the consequences of lack of sleep? Dement and Kleitman, 1957 – implications of lack of sleep • Theories: Restoration theory (Oswald, 1966) supporting evidence, implications –what effects will lack of sleep have according to this theory? • Theories: Reorganisational Theory of Learning (Crick and Mitchison, 1983) supporting evidence, implications –what effects will lack of sleep have according to this theory? • ( Optional)Theories: Evolutionary Theory (Meddis, 1979 and Webb, 1983) supporting evidence, implications –what effects will lack of sleep have according to this theory?
Biological Theory – factors which impact sleep cycle – endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers. Any supporting evidence • Treatments under the biological theory – Drugs (sleeping pills), melatonin supplement. Czeisler, 1990 – exposure to bright light • Cognitive Approach – stress appears to be a major cause for sleep disorders – cognitive theory of dreaming – role in learning and problem solving. Therefore lack of sleep will impair learning and problem solving abilities. Supporting evidence. • Treatments under cognitive approach – CBT and Stimulus Control Therapy – supporting evidence
NB • It is important to remember that this is not the definitive structure – just a suggested one. • Make sure that before you answer any question you are breaking it down and planning your response to ensure that you are answering ALL aspects of it. • Don’t just start to answer – you will start to get confused and missed things.