Standard – SSUSH 8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. • Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include Nat Turner’s Rebellion and the rise of abolitionism[William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass,and the Grimke sisters]. • Explain the Missouri Compromiseof 1820 and the issue of slavery in western states and territories. • Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of a states’ rightsideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and the development of sectionalism. • Describe the Mexican-American War and the Wilmot Proviso. • Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population growth.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion • Most famous/influential of slave rebellions in the south • Southern response – stricter slave laws and greater support for the institution of slavery • Increase of sectionalism over slavery
*Nat Turner’s Rebellion (Continued) • In hopes of escaping slavery, Turner and seven other slaves attacked slave owner, Joseph Travis and his family. • Turner thought this would start a movement within other slaves, but only 75 supported his rebellion. • State militias were sent to handle Turner and his rebellion ‘gang’. • Weeks late, Turner was captured and executed on November 11th, 1831.
William Lloyd Garrison • 1831 published newspaper – The Liberator • Advocated for abolition of slavery • Considered by southerners as most “radical” of abolitionists • His newspaper banned in the South
Frederick Douglass • Former slave and famous abolitionist • Wrote influential autobiography and other works • Forcefully argued for African American freedom and rights – before and after the Civil War
Grimke Sisters • Southern sisters and abolitionists • Lectured and wrote against slavery • Became women’s rights activists later in life • Banned in the South
*Grimke Sisters (Cont.) • Sisters, Sarah Moore and Angelina Grimke, went out to Philadelphia to join the Quakers in 1921 & 1929. • The Grimke Sisters met with Lucretia Mott, who was an important influence on their beliefs against slavery and women’s rights. • On May 28th, 1837, the Grimke Sisters ventured their way to New England to lecture the women on abolitionism .
Missouri Compromise of 1820 • Compromise kept balance in Senate • Missouri = slave state, Maine = free state • Banned expansion of slavery elsewhere in Louisiana Purchase • Overturned by Kansas-Nebraska Act and Dred Scott Decision
Nullification Crisis • Crisis over whether a state can “nullify” a federal law • Tariff of Abominations • President Jackson vs. Vice President John C. Calhoun • Jackson threatened to use military force in South Carolina
John C. Calhoun • Most influential Southern Politician before the Civil War – Vice President, Cabinet member, S.C. Senator • Advocate of states rights, sectionalism, nullification • Role in all Sectionalism crises – Missouri statehood, Nullification, California statehood.
Sectionalism • devotion to one’s region or state greater than one’s devotion to nation. • Economic differences between N & S increased sectionalism • Disagreement over Tariffs increased sectionalism • Disagreement over extending slavery into the territories increased sectionalism
States’ Rights – Before the Civil War • Idea that ultimate political authority resides in the sovereign states and not the national government • Articles of Confederation – precedent for idea • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of Jefferson and Madison • Infamous Dred Scott Case • One Cause of the Civil War
Mexican-American War • Controversial war – first for US on foreign soil • Defeat of Mexico = vast new territories, US a continental nation • New territories – Old problem = whether or not to allow the spread of slavery .
*Mexican-American War (Cont.) • Conflict began with Americans’ “Manifest Destiny” being pointed to a nation of the continental scope, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. • Although this began providing the Americans with new land settlements, it also increased the growth of slavery expansion. • Not being able to resolve the conflict the two started war in 1861.
Wilmot Proviso • Wilmot Proviso-no slavery to be allowed in territories obtained from Mexico • Controversial amendment – kept issue of the spread of slavery at the top of nation’s agenda • Wilmot Proviso – basis for the creation of Republican Party of Abraham Lincoln
Compromise of 1850 • Compromise of 1850 Provisions • Calif. Added as free state • Tougher fugitive slave laws for the south • New Mex., Utah allowed to vote whether to be free or slave [popular sovereignty] • Results of Compromise - postponed but did not prevent Civil War for10 years