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The American Revolution: 1775-1783 PowerPoint Presentation
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The American Revolution: 1775-1783

The American Revolution: 1775-1783

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The American Revolution: 1775-1783

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  1. The American Revolution: 1775-1783 Mr. Pagliaro Seymour High School

  2. On the Eve of the Revolution ?

  3. Loyalist Strongholds

  4. Washington’s Military Headaches • 1/3 colonists favored independence • Colony/state loyalties • CC couldn’t tax • No $ for Continental Army • Poor training • Baron von Steuben

  5. Exports & Imports: 1768-1783

  6. Military Strategies The Americans The British • Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. • Guerilla tactics [wear the British down] • Ally with one of Britain’s enemies. • Break the colonies into North & South • Blockade • “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.

  7. Bunker (Breeds) Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties-1000 B, 311 C deathsdeadliest battle

  8. Phase I:The Northern Campaign[1775-1776]

  9. Phase II: NY NJ PA[1776-1778]

  10. “These are the times that try men’s souls.”T. Payne, The American Crisis • Aug. 1776-Howes to NY • 32,000 Redcoats, 10,000 Hessians • Amnesty offer: 3,000 accept • C.A. = 23,000 untrained volunteers • Post-Battle of NY & Long Island-8,000 remain • Retreat/Regroup in NJ • Dec. 31, enlistments end

  11. In 1778, Robert Sheffield of Stonington, Connecticut-July 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners "The heat was so intense that (the hot sun shining all day on deck) they were all naked…served …to get rid of vermin, but the sick were eaten up alive. Their sickly countenances, and ghastly looks were truly horrible…swearing …blaspheming…stalking about like ghosts…all panting for breath; some dead, and corrupting. The air was so foul that at times a lamp could not be kept burning, by reason of which the bodies were not missed until they had been dead ten days.” I regret that I have but one life to give for my country…

  12. New York City in Flames(Fall, 1776)

  13. 1776 Battle of NY/LI Loss of NY Washington’s Retreat Battle of Trenton 1777 Princeton Loss of Philadelphia Bennington Saratoga Key events of the NY/NJ Campaign

  14. Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851

  15. Saratoga:“Turning Point” of the War?

  16. After Saratoga, France recognized the USA Foreign leaders: Von Steuben-Training Infantry Marquis de Lafayette-Training Infantry Comte de Rochambeau-French Army Expédition Particulière Admiral DeGrasse-French Navy Bernardo de Galvez-Raids Tadeusz Kościuszko-Fortifications Casimir Pulaski-Calvary Foreign Support

  17. “Local” Aid

  18. Harsh winter, poor supplies Drilling Baron Von Steuben Valley Forge

  19. Phase III:The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]

  20. Britain’s “Southern Strategy” • Led by Cornwallis • Rally southern Loyalists • Preserve profitable colonies • Good US leaders: Nathanial Greene, Francis Marion (the Swamp Fox)

  21. The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de Rochambeau AdmiralDe Grasse

  22. Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: “The World Turned Upside Down!” Painted by John Trumbull, 1797

  23. Why did the British Lose???

  24. North America After theTreaty of Paris, 1783

  25. Articles of Confederation Government: 1781-1789

  26. WholesalePriceIndex:1770-1789

  27. Federalist vs. Anti-FederalistStrongholds at the End of the War

  28. Weaknesses of theArticles of Confederation • unicameral Congress • 13 out of 13 to amend • Representatives frequently absent • Could not tax or raise armies • No executive or judicial branches

  29. State Constitutions • Republicanism • Strong governors with veto power • Bicameral legislatures • Property required for voting • Some had universal white male suffrage. • bills of rights • Many had a continuation of state-established religions while others disestablished religion.

  30. Occupational Composition of Several State Assemblies in the 1780s

  31. Indian Land Cessions:1768-1799

  32. Disputed Territorial ClaimsBetween Spain & the U. S.:1783-1796

  33. State Claims to Western Lands

  34. Land Ordinance of 1785

  35. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • Major accomplishment of the Confederation Congress! • Statehood process: • Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to govern the territory. • >5,000 adult, male land ownerselect territorial legislature • >60,000elect delegates: state constitutional convention.

  36. The United States in 1787

  37. American trade w/ Britain: 1783-1789

  38. Annapolis Convention (1786) • 12 representatives from 5 states[NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] • address limited trade and commerce between states • Limited representation • Reported to congress: • Meet in Philadelphia to solve trade issues

  39. Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87 • Daniel Shays • Western MA • Small farmers angry: debt, taxes

  40. Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87

  41. Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87 There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders. George Washington