The American Revolution: 1775-1783 Mr. Pagliaro Seymour High School
Washington’s Military Headaches • 1/3 colonists favored independence • Colony/state loyalties • CC couldn’t tax • No $ for Continental Army • Poor training • Baron von Steuben
Military Strategies The Americans The British • Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. • Guerilla tactics [wear the British down] • Ally with one of Britain’s enemies. • Break the colonies into North & South • Blockade • “Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
Bunker (Breeds) Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties-1000 B, 311 C deathsdeadliest battle
Phase II: NY NJ PA[1776-1778]
“These are the times that try men’s souls.”T. Payne, The American Crisis • Aug. 1776-Howes to NY • 32,000 Redcoats, 10,000 Hessians • Amnesty offer: 3,000 accept • C.A. = 23,000 untrained volunteers • Post-Battle of NY & Long Island-8,000 remain • Retreat/Regroup in NJ • Dec. 31, enlistments end
In 1778, Robert Sheffield of Stonington, Connecticut-July 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners "The heat was so intense that (the hot sun shining all day on deck) they were all naked…served …to get rid of vermin, but the sick were eaten up alive. Their sickly countenances, and ghastly looks were truly horrible…swearing …blaspheming…stalking about like ghosts…all panting for breath; some dead, and corrupting. The air was so foul that at times a lamp could not be kept burning, by reason of which the bodies were not missed until they had been dead ten days.” I regret that I have but one life to give for my country…
1776 Battle of NY/LI Loss of NY Washington’s Retreat Battle of Trenton 1777 Princeton Loss of Philadelphia Bennington Saratoga Key events of the NY/NJ Campaign
Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851
After Saratoga, France recognized the USA Foreign leaders: Von Steuben-Training Infantry Marquis de Lafayette-Training Infantry Comte de Rochambeau-French Army Expédition Particulière Admiral DeGrasse-French Navy Bernardo de Galvez-Raids Tadeusz Kościuszko-Fortifications Casimir Pulaski-Calvary Foreign Support
Harsh winter, poor supplies Drilling Baron Von Steuben Valley Forge
Britain’s “Southern Strategy” • Led by Cornwallis • Rally southern Loyalists • Preserve profitable colonies • Good US leaders: Nathanial Greene, Francis Marion (the Swamp Fox)
The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de Rochambeau AdmiralDe Grasse
Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: “The World Turned Upside Down!” Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
Why did the British Lose???
Articles of Confederation Government: 1781-1789
Weaknesses of theArticles of Confederation • unicameral Congress • 13 out of 13 to amend • Representatives frequently absent • Could not tax or raise armies • No executive or judicial branches
State Constitutions • Republicanism • Strong governors with veto power • Bicameral legislatures • Property required for voting • Some had universal white male suffrage. • bills of rights • Many had a continuation of state-established religions while others disestablished religion.
Disputed Territorial ClaimsBetween Spain & the U. S.:1783-1796
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • Major accomplishment of the Confederation Congress! • Statehood process: • Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to govern the territory. • >5,000 adult, male land ownerselect territorial legislature • >60,000elect delegates: state constitutional convention.
Annapolis Convention (1786) • 12 representatives from 5 states[NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] • address limited trade and commerce between states • Limited representation • Reported to congress: • Meet in Philadelphia to solve trade issues
Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87 • Daniel Shays • Western MA • Small farmers angry: debt, taxes
Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87 There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders. George Washington