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INDUSTRIAL LEADERS

INDUSTRIAL LEADERS

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INDUSTRIAL LEADERS

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  1. INDUSTRIAL LEADERS

  2. CORNELIUS VANDERBILT RAILROAD SUMMER COTTAGE

  3. John D. RockefellerOil • Country Home • Winter Home • On the Cover of a Popular Magazine • Mansion • Stock Certificate

  4. J. P. MorganBanking/Finance • Photograph

  5. Andrew CarnegieSteel • Photograph

  6. Philanthropy • Carnegie's Millions to Library • Rockefeller's Contributions • Vanderbilt and Education • J. P. Morgan's Contributions

  7. Industry Expansion

  8. Economic Transformation/Growth • Laissez-faire capitalism • Special considerations by government • Land grants to RR builders • Increasing labor supply • Immigration • Migration from farms to cities • Wealth of natural resources • Rivers • Oil, Coal, Iron

  9. Big Business

  10. Business Structures • The Corportation • Vertical Integration • Bought suppliers of raw materials • Example: Carnegie bought iron and coal companies • Horizontal Integration • Bought companies that sold product • Example: Carnegie bought other steel companies • Example: J.D.Rockefeller and Oil

  11. Business Structures • Trusts • A place to hide ownership of other companies • Monopolies • Sole owner of a product • Examples: Rockefeller and Standard Oil and others

  12. Government Response to Monopolies and Trusts • Laissez-Faire Economics • Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890 • Prevents monopolies or prevents any business that “restrains trade” • Weak, not well-enforced • Clayton Anti-Trust Act • Gave “teeth” to (expanded) Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Outlaws price-fixing • Example Railroads • Exempts unions from Sherman Act • Enforced

  13. Working Conditions • Dangerous working conditions • Long hours, low wages, no job security • No benefits (accident, health or retirement) • Company town • Example: Mining towns • Employment of women, immigrants, children • Child Labor • Coal Mining • Hine's Pics

  14. Robber Barons? • A Question of Philanthropy

  15. Unions • Collective Bargaining • Goals: higher wages, shorter workdays/weeks • Notice to workers: an attempt to organize

  16. Example of Unions • Knights of Labor • Early labor union • Declines after failure of strikes • American Federation of Labor • Samuel Gompers • American Railway Union • Eugene Debs • Union of all workers

  17. Examples of Unions • Industrial Ladies’ Garment Workers Union • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Tragedy • Factory

  18. Examples of Stikes

  19. Haymarket Square • Chicago’s Haymarket Square • Bomb explodes during demonstration in support of striking workers • Several people die

  20. Homestead Stike • Steel workers and Pinkerton Guards battle • Several people die

  21. Pullman Strike • Led by Eugene Debs and American Railway Union • Federal Troops called to break strike • Violence erupts

  22. Immigration

  23. Northern & Western Europe Examples: Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden Southern & Eastern Europe Examples: Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Asia (China & Japan) ImmigrationPrior to 1877 From 1871 to 1921

  24. Ellis Island • Immigrants arrived from Europe • First stop, Ellis Island in New York • Statue of Liberty • Came by boat across the Atlantic • Ellis Island Records

  25. Why Become an Immigrant? • Freedom (political, economic, religious) • Better economic opportunities • Better living standard for families

  26. Contributions of Immigrants • Chinese help build transcontinental RR • Worked as laborers in textile and steel mills of Northeast • Helped build the clothing industry in NYC • Slavs, Italians, & Poles worked in coal mines in the East

  27. Process of Assimilation • American “Melting pot” • Schools important to teaching American values • Immigrants learned English, American customs, became American citizens • However, often lived in ethnic neighborhoods

  28. Hardships & Hostility • Fear & resentment by other Americans that immigrants would take their jobs • Fear & Resentment that immigrants would accept lower pay • Prejudice based on religious differences • Prejudice based on cultural differences

  29. Immigration Laws Change • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 • Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 • Both laws limited or cut-off immigration to American for several decades

  30. Growth of Cities • Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, & New York • As a result of industrial growth • Cities became manufacturing and transportation centers

  31. Living Conditions in the Cities • Tenements • Slums • Crowded conditions • Sanitary Conditions Poor • How the Other Half Lives (Riis)

  32. Rapid Growth of Cities: Impact • Housing shortages • Need for new public services • Sewage • Water systems • Public transportation • NYC: First subway system • Trolley or streetcar lines

  33. Progressive Movement

  34. Goals of Progressive Movement • Government controlled by people • Guaranteed economic opportunities through government regulation • Elimination of social injustices

  35. Progressive Accomplishments in Local Governments • New forms to meet needs of increasing urbanization • Commission & council manager

  36. Progressive Accomplishments in State Governments • Referendum • Initiative • Recall

  37. Progressive Accomplishments in Elections • Primary Elections • Secret Ballot • Direct election of U.S. Senators • 17th Amendment

  38. Progressive Accomplishments in Child Labor • Muckraking literature describing abuses of child labor • Child labor laws

  39. Impact of Labor Unions • At first, not very successful • Labor supply high so strikes unsuccessful • Violence linked to Unions (strikes) • Eventually, gains made • Limited work hours • Regulated work conditions

  40. Anti-Trust Laws • Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Clayton Anti-Trust Act

  41. Women’s Suffrage • Forerunner of modern protest movement • Benefited from strong leadership • Susan B. Anthony • Encouraged women to enter labor force during WWI • Resulted in 19th Amendment to Constitution • Women’s Right to Vote

  42. The South

  43. Discrimination & Segregation in the South • “Jim Crow” laws • Forced separation of races in public places • Black Codes • KKK • Intimidation and Crimes against African Americans • lynchings

  44. Response to Discrimination & Segregation • Courts became focus for redress, safeguard rights • Plessy v. Fergusson • “separate but equal” did not violate 14th Amendment • “Jim Crow” laws upheld

  45. Great Migration • In early 20th century • Southern African Americans move to Northern cities • Searching for jobs, escape poverty & discrimination in the South

  46. Responses by Leaders

  47. Ida B. Wells • Led anti-lynching campaign • Pushed federal government to take action

  48. Booker T. Washington • The way to equality was through vocational education & economic success • He accepted social separation • Up From Slavery

  49. W.E.B.Du Bois • Supported college education • Education was meaningless without equality • Supported political equality • Helped form the NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • The Souls of Black Folk