Understand Mobile Technologies What? Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D. School of Information Sciences and Technology The Pennsylvania State University
Understand Mobile Computing What ? Carriers Advantages Where ? How ? Disadvantages Venders Why ?
Mobile Technologies – What? 100 mbs 10 mbs Broadband Cellular 1 mbs 3G Cellular Throughput 802.11x 100 kbs 2.5G Cellular Bluetooth 10 kbs 2G Cellular RFID 10 m 100 m 1 km 10 km Distance
Cellular / PCS: - Cell phones - PDAs - PC cards Location Based Services: - Network - Handset SIM Cards: - Personal data - Stored minutes (prepay) - Stored value (m-cash) Message Technologies: - Email - SMS - IM Telematics: - Private vehicles - Commercial Telemetry Mobile Technologies – What?
GSM TDMA CDMA iDEN CDPD Mobitex &DataTAC ReFLEX Mobile Computing Standards 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 9.6 to 14.4 Kb/sec 115 Kb/sec 384 Kb/sec 384+ Kb/sec (GPRS) (EDGE) (UMTS) 9.6 to 43.2 Kb/sec 14.4 – 64 Kb/sec 144 Kb/sec 384 Kb/sec cdmaOne (95A-95B) (cdma2000 1XRTT) (cdma2000 EVDV) 9.6 Kb/sec 60-70 Kb/sec ??? 19.2 Kb/sec 4.8 to 19.2 Kb/sec 9.6 Kb/sec 64 Kb/sec (NextGen ReFLEX ???) • 2G 2.5G 3G
Mobile Protocol Standards • GSM: Global Systems for Mobile Communications. • TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access. • CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access. • iDEN: Integrated Digital Enhanced Network. • CDPD:Cellular Digital Packet Data. • Mobitex & DataTAC: Packed-switch Mobile Data Network. • UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecom System.
Bluetooth • 1994 – Ericsson • 1998 – Bluetooth SIG - 2000+ members • PAN - Personal Area Networking • 2.4 gHz • 10 m radius - No line-of-sight requirement, as with IR • 128 bit security encryption • Up to 720 Kb/sec. • Low cost chip (max $5) - Can be fitted into anything!
802.11 Standard Series • Wireless IP networking for home and office - Limit range: 150 m • 802.11b: 11 Mb/sec @ 2.4 gHz - Bluetooth conflicts? • 802.11a: 54 Mb/sec @ 5 gHz • 802.11g: 22 54 Mb/sec @ 2.4 gHz - Newest std; forward compatibility. • Benefits: - User mobility: home, office, even public locations! - Flexibility: P2P, access point (wireless hub), hand-over. - Cheaper: infrastructure. Old building, fault tracking. • Issues: significant security problems.
Types of Mobile Applications • Notification (paging) • Two-way Messaging • Interactive Data Exchange (Sales order entry, status, ticket purpose). • Email (supports, attachments) • M-Commerce • On-line information inquiry. • Telemetry. • Location-based services. • M-Learning.
Mobile Challenges • Many different kinds of device technologies: - Internet enabled desktops, PDAs, WAP phones, pagers - Different devices support multiple kinds of browsers • Many network protocols with different characteristics: - Voice, data, messaging support traffic from real-time conversations to one-way messaging. - WAP, GSM, CDMA, TDMA, CDPD, AMPS, SMS, TCP/IP, Mobitex, ReFlex • Many different kinds of services to be delivered: - Sales, services, support, marketing, distribution, … • Many different delivery situations: - In the office, at a customer site, in the airport, on a plane, on the road, at home, you named it. • Industry-standard protocols are not fully emerges yet.
Mobile Challenges • Unfriendly communication environment: - Fluctuating coverage conditions caused by weather, buildings, mountains, devices. - May have coverage holes • Narrow bandwidth and low speeds. • Interoperability Issues. • Roaming workforces. • Limitations of current devices and protocol. • Security.
Limitations of Wireless • Bandwidth limitations. • Incomplete service coverage. • Scarcity of contents • Lack of an installed user base. • High customer cost. • Changing communications standards. • Security.
Trends in Mobile Devices • Faster processors • More memory • Screens: - Bigger - More color depth - Bitmap addressable • New user interfaces: - Keyboard (built-in/attachable) - Joysticks • Device convergence: - Hybrid phone/PDA/Pocket PC • Cameras / MP3 Player • Virtual Machines/Browsers
VM Application Content VM (App) Browser (App) Application Device OS Device OS Device OS Processor Processor Processor How do Applications run on Devices? • Native OS • Virtual Machine Library over Native OS • Markup in a Browser
HTML cHTML HDML BREW WML PalmCl J2ME Voice Web vs. Mobile Development Internationalization B&W or Color Application Languages Available Memory OS Versions Screen sizes/resolutions Browser versions Keyboards vs. Soft Buttons Handset scripting Language versions Messaging Application Server Data Server
Developing Services for Multiple Devices • Custom Development: - If you control the mobile devices. - If you have unlimited resources • Transcoding: - HTML content scraped and re-marked up - Not recommended for long term • XML/XSL: - Some limitations in what a style sheet can do - It is also up to your programming skill • Presentation Server: - Virtualize presentation definition
Advantages to Win Competition Flexibility Innovation Machines Information Technology Time Cost Services Money Materials Quality
Competitive Advantages • Cost / Price: - Initial Cost. - Life Cycle Cost. • Quality: - Reliability. - Features. - Performance. • Time: - Fast Delivery Time. - On Time Delivery. - New Systems Development Speed. • Flexibility: - Functionality Changes. - Format Changes - Interfaces …
Business Benefits There are no "wireless" problems, only business problems. • Improving customer relationships • Reducing errors • Increasing productivity • Strengthening communications • Reducing Latencies (faster turnaround) • Quicker and easier access to information • Improving support
Thank You? Any Question?
Determinants for Wireless Services Mobility Battery Life Operating Models Voice Quality Security Coverage Area Roaming Cell Radius Efficiency Privacy Size Weight Screen Size Color User Interface Screen Characteristics Antenna Audio Capabilities Style Design Form Function Affordability Handset Service Contract Roaming Charge Operating Cost Accessories Cell Marketing Infrastructure Operating Cost Management Operator Customer