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Emerging Database Technologies and Applications. Talal A. Alsubaie. Outline. Mobile Database. Multimedia Database. GIS ( Geographic Information Systems ). Mobile Database. Mobile Database. Portable devices and wireless technology led to mobile computing.

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  • Mobile Database.

  • Multimedia Database.

  • GIS ( Geographic Information Systems ).

Talal A. Alsubaie

Mobile database1
Mobile Database

  • Portable devices and wireless technology led to mobile computing.

  • Portable computing devices and wireless communication allowed the client to access data from any ware and any time.

  • There are some HW and SW problems that must be solved to make maximum exploitation of mobile computing.

    • i.e. Database recovery.

  • Hardware problems are more difficult.

    • Wireless coverage.

    • Battery.

    • Changes in network topology.

    • Wireless Transmission Speed.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Mobile database2
Mobile Database

  • Mobile Computing Architecture:

Talal A. Alsubaie

Mobile database3
Mobile Database

  • Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET):

    • In a MANET, co-located mobile units do not need to communicate via a fixed network, but instead, form their own using cost-effective technologies such as Bluetooth.

    • In a MANET, mobile units are responsible for routing their own data, effectively acting as base stations as well as clients.

    • MANET must be robust enough to handle changes in network topology.

      • Such as arrival or departure of mobile unites.

    • MANET can fall under P2P architecture.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Characteristics of mobile environments
Characteristics of Mobile Environments

  • Communication latency

  • Intermittent connectivity

  • Limited battery life

  • Changing client location

  • All of these Characteristics impact data management in mobile computing.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Characteristics of mobile environments 2
Characteristics of Mobile Environments (2)

  • The server may not be able to reach the client or vise versa.

  • We can add proxies to the client and the server to cache updates into when connection is not available.

  • After the connection is available proxy automatically forward these updates to its distention.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Characteristics of mobile environments 3
Characteristics of Mobile Environments (3)

  • The latency involved in wireless communication makes scalability a problem.

    • Since latency increases the time to service each client request, so the server can handle fewer clients.

  • Servers can use Broadcasting to solve this problem.

  • Broadcast well reduces the load on the server, as clients do not have to maintain active connections to it.

    • For example weather broadcasting.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Characteristics of Mobile Environments (4)

  • Client mobility also poses many data management challenges:

    • Servers must keep track of client locations in order to efficiently route messages to them.

    • Client data should be stored in the network location that minimizes the traffic necessary to access it.

    • The act of moving between cells must be transparent to the client.

  • Client mobility also allows new applications that are location-based.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Data management issues
Data Management Issues

  • Mobile databases can be distributed under two possible scenarios:

    • The entire database is distributed mainly among the wired components, possibly with full or partial replication.

      • Management is done in fixed hosts, with additional functionalities.

    • The database is distributed among wired and wireless components.

      • Management is done in both fixed hosts and mobile units.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Data management issues1
Data Management Issues

  • Data distribution and replication (Cache)

  • Transactions models

  • Query processing (where data is located?)

  • Recovery and fault tolerance

  • Mobile database design

  • Location-based service

  • Division of labor

  • Security

Talal A. Alsubaie

Application intermittently synchronized databases
Application: Intermittently Synchronized Databases

  • The client has his own application and DBMS in his local laptop.

  • Do some updates locally and connect to the server via internet to get batch of updates (synchronization).

  • The primary characteristic of this scenario is that the clients are mostly disconnected; the server is not necessarily able reach them.

  • This environment has problems similar to those in distributed and client-server databases, and some from mobile databases.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Application intermittently synchronized databases1
Application: Intermittently Synchronized Databases

Insert\Update Data

Talal A. Alsubaie

Multimedia databases
Multimedia Databases

  • In the years ahead multimedia information systems are expected to dominate our daily lives.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Nature of multimedia data and applications
Nature of Multimedia Data and Applications

  • DBMSs have been constantly adding to the types of data they support.

  • Today many types of multimedia data are available in current systems.

    • Text.

    • Graphics.

    • Images.

    • Animation.

    • Video.

    • Audio.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Nature of multimedia applications
Nature of Multimedia Applications

  • Multimedia data may be stored, delivered, and utilized in many different ways.

  • Applications may be categorized based on their data management characteristics.

    • Repository applications.

      • A large amount of multimedia data as well as metadata is stored for retrieval purposes.

    • Presentation applications.

      • Simple multimedia viewing of video or audio data.

    • Collaborative work using multimedia information.

      • Which engineers may execute a complex design task by merging drawings, fitting subjects to design constraints, and generating new documentation, change notifications, and so forth.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Data management issues2
Data Management Issues

  • Multimedia applications dealing with thousands of images, documents, audio and video segments, and free text data depend critically on:

    • Appropriate modeling of the structure and content of data.

    • Designing appropriate database schemas for storing and retrieving multimedia information.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Data management issues cont
Data Management Issues (cont.)

  • Multimedia information systems are very complex and embrace a large set of issues:

    • Modeling:

      • Complex Objects, dealing with large number of types of data (Graphics).

    • Design:

      • Conceptual, logical, and physical design of multimedia has not been addressed fully, and it remains an area of active research.

    • Storage:

      • Multimedia data on standard disk devices presents problems of representation, compression, mapping to device hierarchies, archiving, and buffering during the input/output operation.

      • DBMS has presented the BLOB type (Binary Large Object).

Talal A. Alsubaie

Data management issues cont1
Data Management Issues (cont.)

  • Multimedia information systems are very complex and embrace a large set of issues (cont.):

    • Queries and retrieval:

      • The database way of retrieving information is based on query languages and internal index structures.

    • Performance:

      • Multimedia applications involving only documents and text, performance constraints are subjectively determined by the user.

      • Applications involving video playback or audio-video synchronization, physical limitations dominate.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Multimedia database applications
Multimedia Database Applications

  • Documents and records management

  • Knowledge dissemination

  • Education and training

  • Marketing, advertising, retailing, entertainment, and travel

  • Real-time control and monitoring

Talal A. Alsubaie

Geographic information systems
Geographic Information Systems

  • Geographic information systems(GIS):

    • A systematic integration of hardware and software for capturing, storing, displaying, updating manipulating and analyzing spatial data.

Talal A. Alsubaie


Geographic Information Systems

  • GIS can be divided into two formats:

    • Vector data represents geometric objects such as points, lines, and polygons.

    • Raster data is characterized as an array of points, where each point represents the value of an attribute for a real-world location.

      • Informally, raster images are n-dimensional array where each entry is a unit of the image and represents an attribute

Talal A. Alsubaie

Characteristics of data in gis
Characteristics of Data in GIS

  • There are several aspects of the geographical objects need to be considered:

    • Location.

    • Temporality.

    • Complex Spatial Features.

    • Object ID.

    • Data Quality.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Characteristics of data in gis1
Characteristics of Data in GIS

  • The geographic context, topologic relations and other spatial relationships are fundamentally important in order to define spatial integrity rules.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Constraints in gis
Constraints in GIS

  • Topology Integrity.

    • Deals with the behavior of features and the spatial relationship between them.

  • Semantic Integrity.

    • Deals with the meaning.

  • User Defined Integrity.

    • Business rules.

  • Temporal.

    • Punctual and Durable.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Conceptual data models for gis
Conceptual Data Models for GIS

  • Briefly describes the common conceptual models for storing spatial data in GIS.

  • Some conceptual data models:

    • Raster data model:

      • Used for analytical applications.

    • Vector data model:

      • Analysis is done using a well defined set of tools.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Conceptual data models for gis1
Conceptual Data Models for GIS

  • Some conceptual data models (cont.):

    • Network model:

      • Define how lines connect to each other in a point.

      • Rules are stored in a connectivity table.

      • Example of everyday application, optimizing a school bus route.

    • TIN data model:

      • Triangular Irregular Network.

      • Is a vector-based approach.

      • models surfaces by connecting sample points as vector

        of triangles.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Dbms enhancements for gis
DBMS Enhancements for GIS

  • Until the mid 1990s, GIS system was based mainly on file-based systems.

  • No transfer standards was defined, which limited vendors in terms of sharing.

  • Involved in a geo-structure and attributes was stored in DBMS.

  • The spatial features was kept in a file and linked to the attributes.

  • Could not take FULL advantage of commercial RDBMS.

  • Database extensions has been released by vendors like DB2 spatial extender, and OracleSpatial and OracleLocator to support GIS data.

  • These extensions allowed the user to store, manage, and retrieve geo-objects.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Gis standers and operations
GIS Standers and Operations

  • Spatial Relationship Standard:

    • Equal.

    • Intersect.

    • Touch.

    • Cross.

    • Within.

    • … and more.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Gis standers and operations1
GIS Standers and Operations

  • Spatial Analysis Standard:

    • Distance.

      • Returns the shortest distance between any two points in two geometries.

    • Buffer.

      • Returns a geometry that represents all points whose distance from the given geometry is less than or equal to distance.

    • Convex Hull.

    • Union.

    • And more.

Talal A. Alsubaie

Gis standers and operations2
GIS Standers and Operations










WHERE (AREA (State_shape) > 50000)

Talal A. Alsubaie

Future of gis
Future of GIS

  • There are some challenges in developing GIS applications:

    • Data Source.

    • Data Model.

    • Standards.

    • Mobile GIS.

    • Specialized DBMS for GIS.

Talal A. Alsubaie