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Wireless Technologies for Mobile Phones

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  1. Wireless Technologies for Mobile Phones 大同大學 資訊工程系 副教授 鄭福炯(cheng@cse.ttu.edu.tw)

  2. Contents • Wireless Services and Mobile applications • Wireless solution: WAP, Native code or Java? • Standards: • Mobile Execution Environment (MExE (mexy)) • J2ME for mobile phones/PDAs: CLDC + MIDP • Demo: J2ME Sample programs

  3. Wireless Internet Usage in USA Millions Of Users Source: industry standard

  4. Wireless Services: The Good News • The value of mobile commerce transactions in Western Europe will top US$37 billion in 2004. (IDC) • 40 percent of e-commerce transactions outside the US will be done via portable, cellular-enabled devices. (Gartner Group)$ • Companies will increase the number of workers allowed remote connectivity by roughly 30 percent, spending approximately $10,000 per mobile user.” (Informetrics Research)

  5. Wireless Services: The Good News • By 2004, mobile professionals will make up 34% of the U.S. mobile and remote population, followed by work extenders (31%), telecommuters (21%), and mobile data collectors (14%). (IDC) • The cellular phone service market in Asia/Pacific swelled to 170.7 million subscribers in the first quarter of 2000, a 47 percent increase over the same period last year.” (Dataquest Inc., a unit of Gartner Group, Inc.)

  6. Wireless Services: The Good News • About one billion people will use wireless data services by 2005.(ARC Group) • By 2003, 1 billion mobile devices will be in use. (Gartner Group) • Businesses worldwide will have 47 million mobile and remote workers worldwide by 2002. (IDC) • The enterprise WLAN market will expand at a 25% compound annual growth rate from 2000 to 2004, reaching $2.2 billion in worldwide sales. (Cahners In-Stat Group)

  7. Wireless Services: The Good News • Enterprises will spend more than $400 million by 2001 to enable their existing infrastructure for wireless access. (Aberdeen Group) • The wireless market for e-services could represent over $30 billion by 2003. (IBM)

  8. Service Age: Anyone Anywhere Anytime Anything Home Small Office Email Voice Financial Telephony Entertainment Services Corporate Center Mobile

  9. A Web of Intelligent Devices LAPTOP AUTO CAMERA ROBOT NETWORK Webpad PRINTER/Fax TV/Set-top box KITCHEN APPLIANCES PDAs TELEPHONE

  10. Mobile Wireless Services • Banking & Broking • Shopping & Auctions • Advertising • Travel Services • Location-based services Mobile Information service Mobile Enterprise service Service creation, Delivery & management infrastructure Mobile Commerce service Mobile Entertainment service Mobile Communication service

  11. Mobile Wireless Services • News services • Stocks information • Weather information • Traffic information • Directory services Mobile Information service Mobile Enterprise service Service creation, Delivery & management infrastructure Mobile Commerce service Mobile Entertainment service Mobile Communication service

  12. Mobile Wireless Services • PIM • Collaboration • CRM • ERP Mobile Information service Mobile Enterprise service Service creation, Delivery & management infrastructure Mobile Commerce service Mobile Entertainment service Mobile Communication service

  13. Mobile Wireless Services • Music • Games • Multimedia Mobile Information service Mobile Enterprise service Service creation, Delivery & management infrastructure Mobile Commerce service Mobile Entertainment service Mobile Communication service

  14. Mobile Wireless Services • E-mail • Short message service • Chat • Video-telephony Mobile Information service Mobile Enterprise service Service creation, Delivery & management infrastructure Mobile Commerce service Mobile Entertainment service Mobile Communication service

  15. Service Delivery Platform

  16. Mobile Wireless Value Chain Mobile Application Venders Telecom Equipment Venders Technology Platform Venders Content Providers Internet Telecom Network Device Manufacturers Mobile Carries Mobile Portal Providers Mobile Service Providers

  17. Wireless Infrastructure: Services • 1G - Analog, 9600 baud, voice applications • 2G - Digital, circuit-switched, PCS, 19.2k++, slow • 2.5G - Digital, packet- switched, 19.2k- 384k, faster than 2G • Ricochet has 200K already! • 3G - Digital, 384k- 2Mbps, high-quality audio/video, expensive infrastructure, US (2003?), Europe (2001-2003?), Japan (2001?) • 4G - Digital, software- controlled infrastructure (“software- defined radio”), 2010?

  18. Wireless Application Constraints • Small Display • Different Input Devices • Security Issues • Connect Speed Varies • Possible High Latency Connection • Network Coverage • Memory Constraints • Battery Constraints • Less Connection Stability • Less Predictable Behavior

  19. Wireless Application: Advantages • Highly Mobile • Localized Services • Always Connected • Reduced Cost

  20. Contents • Wireless Services and Mobile applications • Wireless solution: WAP, Native code or Java? • Standards: • Mobile Execution Environment (MExE (mexy)) • J2ME for mobile phones/PDAs: CLDC + MIDP • Demo: J2ME Sample programs

  21. Trends • Eras of computing • Mainframe era: one computer, many people • PC era: one person, one computer • Ubiquitous-computing era: one person, many computers • Networking: • An internet of computers • A internet of things that embed computers

  22. Wireless Services Today • WAP has been disappointing • “We realize now what we've known all along: Web sites can't be effectively crammed onto tiny WAP phone screens, no matter how much the sites are modified.” by John Dodge, eWeek. • Growing hype around Java-enabled handsets – Success will only come by providing the consumer with a compelling “service” experience that leverages the capabilities of the mobile device, differentiating the wireless internet from the fixed internet • J2ME on the handset can help achieve this, but it requires innovation to leverage the capability

  23. Wireless Services Today • Japan: DoCoMo + I-mode (+ I-appli) • f503i handsets (Fujitsu) p503 (Panasonic) • Java platform (CLDC/Proprietary profile) • USA: Nextel + Motorala • I85s • i50sx • Korea: LG Telecom™s EZ-Java • Java Platform (CLDC/Proprietary Profile) • http://java.ez-i.co.kr/wire/index.asp • Europe: Nokia 9210 and Ericsson R380 • JDK 1.1.8 (Personal Java) + Symbian Epoc

  24. WAP Programming Model

  25. Current Limitations of WAP (I) • Microbrowser Only Interface to Internet • Must Use Slow WAP Gateway • Device Display is Limited • Input Mechanisms are Limited • Only Simple UI • Not Good Enough Security Model

  26. Current Limitations of WAP (II) • Currently, Must Be Connected • Currently, Only a “Pull” Model • Currently, No Multimedia • Limited or Non-existent Graphics • Limited Manipulation of Corporate Objects • Minimal Colors

  27. Java Architecture

  28. Write Once Run Anywhere?

  29. Write Once Run Anywhere?

  30. Java Platforms

  31. Java End-to-end Total Solutions

  32. Why Java Technology For Mobile Applications? • Write once, run anywhere • Leverage all platforms and devices • Rich compelling user experience • GUI-based, multimedia, interactive applications • Works with XML, WAP, HTML • Dynamic delivery of services and applications, • easy upgrades • Disconnected use Saves battery life, user always on

  33. Why Java Technology For Mobile Applications? • Security • Integrated security, private data, networked, encryption • Open standards • Server-side model (J2EE), Client- side model(J2SE or J2ME), or Both • 2. 5M+ Java Programmers!

  34. Application Delivery Options Spectrum of Devices Browser Based (WAP) Native Code (C Lang) Java Code OS Variety ? Proprietary to manufacturer, no dominant player Application Variety ? Personal Productivity ? Location Based Apps ? Voice/Text hybrids ? Entertainment

  35. Application Delivery Options

  36. Why Java fits perfectly: • Portability • Secure Execution Environment • Downloadable Code

  37. Contents • Wireless Services and Mobile applications • Wireless solution: WAP, Native code or Java? • Standards: • Mobile Execution Environment (MExE (mexy)) • J2ME for mobile phones/PDAs: CLDC + MIDP • Demo: J2ME Sample programs

  38. MExE: Introduction • Mobile Execution Environment or MExE (pronounced “mexy”) is a specification • first created by ETSI and • maintained and developed by 3GPP (3rd generation partnership project) • MExE provides a standardized application execution environment for mobile terminals (mobile phones, PDAs) • MExE allows applications to be developed independently of any mobile terminal platform

  39. MExE: Introduction • Mobile Terminal (MT) consists of • the Mobile Equipment (ME) and • SIM/USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module) • MT can vary from small devices (with low bandwidth, limited displays, low processor speeds), to more sophisticated PDA-like devices

  40. Mobile Terminals

  41. MExE: Introduction • MExE allows negotiation of capabilities between MTs and MExE servers • Services are provided by mobile applications executing on the clients or the servers or both • For wide variety of possible mobile terminal configurations (pages, mobile phone, PDAs,..) MExE defines three classmarks • MExE Classmark 1 – WAP Environment • MExE Classmark 2 – PersonalJava Environment • MExE Classmark 3 – Java 2 ME CLDC Environment

  42. MExE Architecture

  43. MExE Architecture

  44. Classmarks • A classmark specifies an application environment based on an existing and already proven technology like WAP and Java. • MExE incorporates these existing technologies into an open standard that will allow interoperability between device manufacturers and application developers • Thus, MExE is not a new technology

  45. Classmarks • MExE devices are required to support at least one of three classsmarks • Multiple classmarks support is optional • Common configuration • Classmark 1 + 2 (WAP + PJava): Nokia 9210 • Classmark 1 + 3 (WAP + KJava): Motorala A6288 • WAP provides the browser functionality and the ability to download new PJava or KJava applications

  46. MExE Classmark 1 – WAP Environment • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) features: • A lightweight markup language: WML (Wireless Markup Lang.) • A script language: WMLScript • WML and WMLScript are derived from XML & JavaScript • A lightweight protocol stack to minimize the required bandwidth (WSP, WTP, WTLS, WDP) and to run on wireless networks (GSM, GPRS, WCDMA,…) • WTA (Wireless telephony applications) allows access to telephony functionality (call control, phone book)

  47. WAP Network Architecture

  48. MExE Classmark 1 – WAP Environment • WAP services: • News • Weather information • Package tracking • Share Trading • Telephony services • Time tables • Access to corporate database • Sports

  49. MExE Classmark 2 – PersonalJava Environment • PersonalJava Application environment is a Java platform for building network-connectable applications for consumer devices for home, office and mobile use. • PersonalJava = full JVM (Java Virtual Machine) + an optimized Java class library • JavaPhone API is a vertical extension to the PJava that defines APIs for telephony control, messaging, address book and calendar info.

  50. PersonalJava High Level Architecture