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Mammalogy (Fall 2012 Althoff - reference FDVM Chapter 6). LEC 05. SKELETAL CONSIDERATIONS & ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCOMOTION. Axial Skeleton. For terrestrial mammals: skeleton, muscles, and their associated structures can be viewed as one unit

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axial skeleton
Axial Skeleton
  • For terrestrial mammals: skeleton, muscles, and their associated structures can be viewed as one unit
  • The ____________________ represents the deck or girders of a bridge & the legs are the pillars.
  • A major, distinguishing feature of mammals is that the “pillars” (legs) must move as ________, via muscle action, to provide locomotion
slide5

A neck!

thoracic

lumbar

generalized primitive tetrapod condition
Generalized primitive tetrapod condition

post-

  • ___________________ (zygapophysis singular) processes that interlock and resist twisting (torsion) and bending (compression) to support weight of viserca on land

pre-

spinal

cord

RIB

notocord

Better suspension…on land !!

Fig. 8-2 p169 PJH

vertebral column
Vertebral Column
  • Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal vertebrate. Exceptions (sloths and manatees don’t have cervical vertebrate)
  • 12-15 ribs which articulate with thoracic vertebrae
  • 4-7 lumbar vertebrae (_______________)
  • In most mammals, sacral vertebrae are ______ to form os sacrum to which pelvic girdle attaches
  • Pelvic girdle: ____________________
  • Caudal = tail (varies with tail length)
atlas axis junction
Atlas & Axis Junction
  • Relative to “lower” vertebrates, these two vertebrate (at junction of vertebral column and skull) allow for significantly increased _____________ of the skull
  • Increased movement translates to better positions for __________________ …doesn’t require that ________ body be moved
axial appendicular join
Axial & Appendicular Join
  • Attachment of forelimbs & hindlimbs to axial skeleton
  • __________—PECTORAL GIRDLE (clavicle & scapula)
  • __________—PELVIC GIRDLE (ilium, ishium, & pubis)
joints
Joints
  • End of joint bones covered by a smooth layer or articular ____________. Result: reduced friction
  • Bone within the joint is covered cancellous bone (i.e., not as dense)
  • Entire joint enclosed in a joint capsule containing synovial fluid which serves as a lubricant

more FLEXIBILITY !!

Fig. 8-1b p168 PJH

appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • FORELIMBS—__________ bone (humerus), 2 middle elements (radius and ulna), and the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
  • HINDLIMBS—___________ bone (femur), lower leg bones (fibula & tibia), and the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. In some species fibula & tibia are fused
modes of locomotion
Modes of Locomotion
  • Walking & Running
  • Jumping & Ricocheting
  • Swimming
  • Flying & Gliding
  • Climbing
  • Digging & Burrowing
terms
Terms...
  • SALTATORIAL—leaping a) spring (jumping)—______ feet involved b) richochet—___________ only
  • SEMI-FOSSORIAL
  • FOSSIORIAL
  • SEMIAQUATIC
more terms con t
more terms…con’t
  • SCANSORIAL—vertical movements on hard surfaces ___________________
  • BRACHIATING—swinging movements with forelimbs (? __________________?)
walking running
Walking & Running
  • Most are QUADRUPEDS
  • Some are BIPEDAL
  • Humans only ones habitually__________
  • Ambulatory = locomote mostly by _________ vs.
  • Cursorial = locomote at least part of time by __________
most mammals well adapted for locomotion
Most Mammals…well adapted for _________________ locomotion
  • PLANTIGRADE—walk on soles of hands and feet (humans, opossums, etc.)
  • DIGITIGRADE—walk on digits (phalanges) (not always “all” digits) (coyotes)
  • UNGULIGRADE—hoofed animals, phalanges are elevated so that only hoofs (modified digital keratin) are in contact with the substrate (pronghorn)
slide24

Unguligrade

(pig)

Digigrade

(dog)

Plantigrade

(man)

SOURCE:Fishbeck and Sebastiani (2008) Fig. 5.20

running speeds
Running Speeds

Species Speed (km/h) Locomotion

Cheetah 110 Pronghorn 98 Elk 72 Coyote 70 Europeon hare 65 Grizzly bear 50 Human 45 Tree squirrel 20 Three-toed sloth 1 “hang”

patterns of running
Patterns of Running
  • Gait--see p110, Fig. 6.14
  • Walking & Pacing & Trotting (different forms of symmetrical gaits = equal spacing of feet and contact with ground at even time intervals vs.
  • Galloping & Bounding (different forms of asymmetrical gaits = contact with ground at uneven time intervals)
jumping ricocheting
Jumping & Ricocheting
  • Saltatorial locomotion
  • Jumping = lagomorphs
  • Richocheting = kangaroos (p111, Fig. 6.15), kangaroo rats (p354, Fig. 18.10), and jumping mice a) most in _________ mode most of time b) hind limbs larger than front c) ________ tail for balance
swimming
Swimming
  • ___________ mammals--split time between aquatic & terrestrial: a) beavers and otters b) _________ tail c) _________ feet (hind only) d) oscillatory propulsion
  • ____________ mammals--most time in water: a) seals, sea lions, walrus b) __________________ c) __________________
swimming con t
Swimming…con’t
  • Marine mammals--all the time in water: a) baleen & toothed whales b) no hind limbs c) no sacrum d) tails, in some, have horizontal fluke--used for propulsion e) again—____________ forelimbs

human arm

pilot whale

blue whale

right whale

slide31

WHALE (mysticete)

vs.

TERESTRIAL

mammal

gliding flying
Gliding & Flying
  • Patagium - “the flight membrane” a) gliders: hind limbs to forelimbs b) volant mammals (bats): from forelimb digits (hand-wing) to the tail (p258, Fig. 11.1)
  • Gliding: patagium is thicker, position controlled by limbs a) evolved in 3 groups: Rodents (flying squirrels),Dermoptera (colugos), & marsupials (sugar/honey gliders) b) increase speed--decrease surface area…and vice versa
slide33

Colugos =

Flying lemurs

Philippines

Java

Borneo

oddity bats
Oddity - Bats
  • Only TRUE flying mammal
  • FORELIMB: ______________ forearm (radius), metacarpals, and fingers; __________ humerus (see lecture notes on Eutherian mammals)
  • Radius __________ rotate
  • HINDLIMB reduced, and unique among mammals, in being rotated 1800 so that the knees point backward—aids in flight maneuvers
flying 3 challenges
Flying: 3 challenges
  • LIFT--generate with air stream over wing surface. Understand __________________…. a) dorsal surface: curved upward b) ventral surface: concave (camber)
  • DRAG--anything that __________ forward motion (friction at the leading edge, friction along the body surface, turbulence
  • POWER--moving the wings ___________ air
lift aspect ratio maneuverability
Lift, Aspect Ratio, & Maneuverability
  • Increasing “angle of attack” results in greater lift…up to the point of stalling
  • Bats generally have broad wings with a _______ aspect ratio--the surface area of the wing divided by its length
  • ________ wings, allow high degree of maneuverability needed to avoid obstacles and respond to detection of prey….
  • Bats are relatively ______ fliers
slide37

BIRD

BAT

climbing arboreal locomotion
Climbing - arboreal locomotion
  • Increased ______ & _______ of claws a) squirrels: claws key to grasping & moving vertically b) bears: must grasp tree aided by claws
  • Prehensile hands & feet (some primates) a) some have ________ pads & increase sensory receptors in hands & feet b) longer & stronger forelimbs
  • Prehensile tail--some
digging burrowing using teeth
Digging & Burrowing--Using Teeth
  • Enlarged heads with strong rostrum and ________ ________ for muscle attachment to involve ______ ________ soil
  • Examples: bamboo rats and naked mole rats 
digging burrowing using limbs
Digging & Burrowing--Using Limbs
  • ___________ typically reflect increased size and strength--relative to hindlimbs: a) claws b) structure of limb, including pectoral girdle c) musculature of limb
  • Hind limbs reduced…but help move loosened soil
  • Examples: moles & pocket gophers