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Module 9: Human development theories

Module 9: Human development theories

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Module 9: Human development theories

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  1. Module 9: Human development theories

  2. Why are there different theories? Theorists disagree about what has had the most influence on our development and the different ways in which we develop. Look at these images and discuss what these differences are. versus Genetic inheritance Environment versus Developing through a series of fixed stages Developing continuously throughout life Module 9: Human development theories

  3. What are the different approaches? Theorists who share the same assumptions about human development and behaviour are said to share the same approach. One approach is Psychodynamic.Can you think of five more? Behaviourist Cognitive Humanistic Approaches to human development Social Learning Psychodynamic Biological Module 9: Human development theories

  4. Psychodynamic approach Early childhood experiences are important for the development of personality. Who are the four key theorists? What were their theories about development? Freud The unconscious mind has a powerful influence on the way we develop and behave. Developmental stages are related to the social environment of the child and attitude of its parents. Erikson Bowlby The role of the mother and effects of maternal deprivation are important to early childhood. Rutter Stress in a child’s life is linked to the likelihood of the child becoming a delinquent. Find out more about the psychodynamic approach and its key theorists here. Record a summary of this approach and its theorists on a downloadable grid here. Module 9: Human development theories

  5. Humanistic approach Argues that the way people feel about themselves is very important and affects everything they think, say and do. There are two main theorists. Discuss who they are and what they believed. Can you label Maslow’s hierarchy? Click each segment to see the labels. Rogers passions, creativity, morality, problem solving People need a high level of self-esteem to achieve their full potential. Self-actualisation Self esteem, confidence, respect of and by others Esteem Maslow Friendship, family, social interaction, intimacy, affection Love/belonging People are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. When the lower levels are satisfied they are able to fulfil higher needs. Security of: body, employment, resources, morality, family, property, health Safety Food, water, sleep, breathing, health Physiological Find out more about the humanistic approach and its key theorists here. Record a summary of this approach and its theorists on a downloadable grid here. Module 9: Human development theories

  6. Behaviourist approach Believes that most human behaviour is learned from the environment. We learn to repeat behaviour with a positive consequence and not to repeat behaviour with a negative consequence. There are two key theorists. Pavlov Skinner Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Builds on behaviour that already exists Behaviour is learned from environmental consequences. Can you think of examples of when these ideas can be seen? We may experience pain at the dentist and so may be conditioned to feel anxious or stressed before going to the dentist. A child may learn to behave in a certain way because it receives praise or punishment. So, nature or nurture? nurture Find out more about the behaviourist approach and its key theorists here. Record a summary of this approach and its theorists on a downloadable grid here. Module 9: Human development theories

  7. Cognitive approach Cognition is processing information about the world around us and adapting our behaviour as a result. Here are the two main theorists. Discuss the key difference in how they believed children learn best. Vygotsky Piaget Children learn best when finding out about themselves – ‘discovery learning’. Children learn best from social interaction with peers – ‘cooperative learning’. Find out more about Piaget here and Vygotskyhere. Record a summary of this approach and its theorist on a downloadable grid here. Module 9: Human development theories

  8. Social learning approach Argues that the major influences on a person’s thoughts, emotions and behaviour are other people, our culture and society. There is one key theorist. Children learn from their environment by observing other people and then imitating what they do. Bandura How would this theorist explain this child’s behaviour? Record your ideas here: Tom is an angry, aggressive 5 year old boy. His father is an alcoholic and often loses his temper with his family. Tom is imitating his father’s aggressive behaviour. Find out more about Bandura and the social learning approach here. Record a summary of this approach and its theorist on a downloadable grid here. Module 9: Human development theories

  9. Biological approach Argues that our physical development, behaviour and personalities are the result of the interaction of our genes and our nervous and endocrine systems. There are three main theorists for this approach. Discuss what they believed. Cattell Eysenck Gesell Maturation: predetermined and regular development of children from birth through stages in a fixed sequence. Claimed there are 16 source traits to make up personality. Believed there are two personality dimensions: Extrovert-Introvert and Stable-neurotic. Have a go at Cattell’s personality test here. So, nature or nurture? nature Find out more about the biological approachhere. Record a summary of this approach and its theorists on a downloadable grid here. Module 9: Human development theories

  10. Which approach? Match the beliefs and theorists below to the three approaches on the right. Click to highlight the colour that matches the approach. Behaviourist (1 click) Generic inheritance determines our behaviour Major influences are our culture and society Skinner Bandura Most human behaviour is learned From our environment Eysenck Social Learning (2 clicks) We can be conditioned to behave in certain ways We can be categorised as a particular personality type Pavlov Biological (3 clicks) Children learn from their environment by imitating others Behaviour builds on natural reflexes that already exist Cattell Module 9: Human development theories

  11. Human development: what do you think? There is no single ‘right’ approach that answers all questions about human behaviour and development. Discuss these questions: • Are our intelligence and personality the result of nature, nurture or a combination of both? • Is our personality at 3 years old an indication of what we will be like at 30 years old? • Do we develop through fixed stages or develop continuously throughout our lives? • Does watching violence on television or in films make us more aggressive? • Does a poor home life mean you are likely to become a delinquent? Module 9: Human development theories